Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for AIDS

. Diet and Nutrition References


Murray M, et al. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, 2nd ed. Prima Publishing, Rockland, CA; 1998;203.


Abdullah TH, et al. "Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in AIDS with garlic." Deutsche Zeitschrift Fur Onkologie. 1989;21:52-53.

Prasad G, Sharma VD. "Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) treatment against experimental candidiasis in chicks." Br Vet J. 1980;136:448-51.


Jordan WC. "Curcumin - a natural herb with anti-HIV activity." Monograph. 1996;1-3.

High Fiber, High Complex Carbohydrate, Low Fat, Moderate Protein

Hadigan C, et al. "Modifiable dietary habits and their relation to metabolic abnormalities in men and women with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and fat redistribution." Clin Infect Dis. September1,2001;33:710-717.

Kushi M, Jack A. The Cancer Prevention Diet. 1983. St. Martin's Press; New York, NY.

Vahouny G, Kritchevasky D. Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease. 1982. Plenum Press; New York, NY

Burkitt D, Trowell H. Western Diseases: Their Emergence and Prevention. 1981. Harvard Univ Press; Cambridge, MA.

Pritikin D, McGrady PM. The Pritican Program for Diet and Exercise. 1979; Groffit and Dunlap, New York, NY.

Anderson JW. "HCF diets: a professional guide to high carboydrate, high fiber biets." Univ of KY Diabetes Fund' 1979, Lexington, KY.


Tubiolo VC, et al. "Food allergy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection." Annals Allergy, Asthma Immunol. February,1997;78:209-212.

Pohl W, et al. "Allergy and HIV infection." Allergy. 1996;19(6):264-269.

Mazza DS, et al. "HIV-1 infection complicated by food allergy and allergic gastroenteritis: a case report." Ann Allerg. May,1991;66:436-440.

Vitamin and Mineral References


Valcour V, Shiramizu B. "HIV-associated dementia, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress." Mitochondrion. 2004;4:119-129.

Fawzi WW, et al. "A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality." N Engl J Med. July1,2004;351(1):23-32.

Sepulveda RT, Watson RR. "Treatment of antioxidant deficiencies in AIDS patients." Nutr Res. 2002;22:27-37.

Mollace V, et al. "Oxidative stress and NeuroAIDS: triggers, modulators and novel antioxidants." Trends Neurosci. July 2001;24(7):411-416.

Arendt BM, et al. "Plasma antioxidant capacity of HIV-seropositive and healthy subjects during long-term ingestion of fruit juices or a fruit-vegetable-concentrate containing antioxidant polyphenols." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:786-792.

Staal FJT. "Antioxidant therapy for aids." Eur J Clin Invest. 2000;30:841-842.

Treitinger A, et al. "Decreased antioxidant defense in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus." Eur J Clin Invest. 2000;30(5):454-459.

Shabert JK, Winslow C. "Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in aids patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial." Nutr. 1999;15(11/12):860-864.

Kelly P, et al. "Micronutrient supplementation in the AIDS diarrhea-wasting syndrome in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial." AIDS. 1999;13:495-500.

Mathe G. "Red wine, green tea and vitamins: do their antioxidants play a role in immunologic protection against cancer or even AIDS?" Biomed Pharmacother. 1999;53:165-167.

Constans J, et al. "Effect of the antioxidants selenium and beta-carotene on HIV-related endothelium dysfunction." Thromb Haemost. 1998;80:1015-1017.

McLemore JL, et al. "Rapid automated determination of lipid hydroperoxide concentrations and total antioxidant status of serum samples from patients infected with HIV: elevated lipid hydroperoxide concentrations and depleted total antioxidant capacity of serum samples." Am J Clin Pathol. 1998:109:268-273.

Allard JP, et al. "Oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant micronutrients in humans with HIV infection." Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:143-147.

Foga IO, et al. "Antioxidants and dipyridamole inhibit HIV-1 gp120-induced free radical-based oxidative damage to human monocytoid cells." J AIDS and Hum Retrovirol. 1997;16:223-229.

Repetto M, et al. "Oxidative stress in blood of HIV infected patients." Clin Chimica Acta. 1996;255:107-117.

Mastroiacovo P, et al. "Antioxidant vitamins and immunodeficiency." Intl J Vit Nutr Res. 1996;66:141-145.

Pace GW, Leaf CD. "The role of oxidative stress in HIV disease." Free Radical Biol Med. 1995;19(4):523-528.

Constans J, et al. "Fatty acids and plasma antioxidants in HIV-positive patients: correlation with nutritional and immunologic status." Clin Biochem. August1995;28:421-426.

Favier A, et al. "Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients infected with HIV." Chemico-Biol Interact. 1994;91:165-180.

Buhl R. "Imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the lungs of HIV- seropositive individuals." Chemico-Biol Interact. 1994;91:147-158.

Greenspan HC. "The role of reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and phytopharmaceuticals in human immunodeficiency virus activity." Med Hypoth. 1993;40:85-92.

Beta carotene

Austin J, et al. "A community randomized controlled clinical trial of mixed carotenoids and micronutrient supplementation of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(11):1266-76.

Burri BJ. "Beta-carotene and human health: a review of current research." Nutr Res. 1997;17(3):547-580.

Omene JA, et al. "Serum beta-carotene deficiency in HIV-infected children." J Natl Med Assoc. 1996;88(12):789-793.

Coodley GO, et al. "B-carotene in HIV infection: an extended evaluation." AIDS. 1996;10(9):967-973.

Branowitz SA, et al. "Carotene deficiency in HIV patients." AIDS. 1996;10(1):115.

Ullrich R, et al. "Serum carotene deficiency in HIV-infected patients." AIDS. 1994;8(5):661-665.

Sappey C, et al. "Vitamin, trace element and peroxide status in HIV seropositive patients: asymptomatic patients present a severe B-carotene deficiency." Clinica Chimica ACTA, 1994;230:35- 42.

McKeown LA. "Beta-carotene lifts CD4 counts: at dose of 180 mg, study found 17% increase in HIV-infected people." Med Trib. February25,1993;4(34):1.

Coodley GO, et al. "Beta-carotene in HIV infection." AIDS. 1993;6(3):272-276.

Vitamin A

Fawzi WW, et al. "Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality." AIDS. 2002;16(14):1935-1944.

Baeten JM, et al. "Vitamin A supplementation and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial." J Infect Dis. April15,2002;185:1187-1191.

Villamor E, et al. "Effect of multivitamin and vitamin A supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-1-infected women." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1082-1090.

Villamor E, et al. "Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth." Pediatrics. January,2002;109(1):1-10.

Hanekom WA, et al. "Effect of vitamin A therapy on serologic responses and viral load changes after influenza vaccination in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus." J Pediatr. April,2000;136(4):550-552.

Bartel P, et al. "Vitamin A status in relation to electroretinographic and electrooculographic findings in HIV infection." Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111:1234-1240.

Fawzi WW, et al. "A randomized trial of vitamin A supplements in relation to mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children in Tanzania." Pediatr Infect Dis J. February,1999;18(2):127-133.

Burns DN, et al. "Vitamin A deficiency and other nutritional indices during pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus infection: prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome." Clin Infect Dis. August,1999;29:328-334.

Coutsoudis A, et al. "Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa." AIDS. 1999;13(12):1517-1524.

Nimmagadda A, et al. "The significance of vitamin A and carotenoid status in persons infected by the human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infectious Dis. 1998;26:711-718.

Phuapradit W, et al. "Serum vitamin A and beta-carotene levels in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1." Obstet Gynecol. April,1996;87(4):564-567.

Jolly PE, et al. "Vitamin A depletion in HIV infection and AIDS." AIDS. 1996;10(1):114.

Coutsoudis A, et al. "The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women." Am J Pub Health. August,1995;85(8):1076-1081.

Karter DL, et al. "Vitamin A deficiency in non-vitamin-supplemented patients with AIDS: a cross-sectional study." J AIDS Hum Retrovirol. 1995;8:199-203.

Semba DR, et al. "Vitamin A deficiency and wasting as predictors of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users." J Infectious Dis. 1995;171(5):1196-202.

Semba DR, et al. "Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection." Arch Int Med. 1993;153:2149-2154.

Vitamin B12

Remacha AF, et al. "Vitamin B-12 metabolism in HIV-infected patients in the age of highly active antiretroviral therapy: role of homocysteine in assessing vitamin B-12 status." Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:420-424.

Bogden JD, et al. "Status of selected nutrients and progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection." Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:809-815.

Brennan TF, et al. "Effects of an oral vitamin B12 formulation on AIDS-related neuropathy and other symptoms: a pilot study." J Adv Med. Summer,1999;12(2):97-117.

Remacha AF, Cadafalch J. "Cobalamin deficiency in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus." Semin Hematol. January,1999;36(1):75-87.

Tang AM, et al, "Low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations are associated with faster human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression." Journal of Nutrition. 1997;127:345-351.

Shor-Posner G, et al. "Plasma cobalamin levels affect information processing speed in a longitudinal study of HIV-1 disease." Arch Neurol. February 1995;52:195-201.

Baum MK, et al. "Micronutrients and HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 1995;9:1051-1056.

Ehrenpreis E, et al. "Malabsorption and deficiency of vitamin B12 and HIV-infected patients With chronic diarrhea." Digest Dis Sci. October1994;39(10):2159-2162.

Hansen M, et al. "Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection." Eur J Hematol. 1992;48:228-231.

Herzlich BC, et al. "Decreased intrinsic factor secretion in Aids: relation to parietal cell acid secretory capacity and vitamin B12 malabsorption." Am J Gastroenterol. 1992;87(12):1781-1788.

Beach RS, et al. "Plasma vitamin B12 level as a potential cofactor in studies of human immunodeficiency virus type I - related cognitive changes." Arch Neurol. May,1992;49:501-506.

Kieburtz CD, et al. "Abnormal vitamin B12 metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus infection: association with neurologic dysfunction." Arch Neurol. March,1991;48:312-314.

Harriman GR, et al. "Vitamin B12 malabsorption in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Arch Int Med. September,1989;149:2039-2041.

Vitamin B-Complex

Fawzi WW, et al. "A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality." N Engl J Med. July1,2004;351(1):23-32.

Semba RD, Tang AM. "Micronutrients and the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection." Br J Nutr. 1999;81:181-189.

Tang AM, et al. "Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection." Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(12):1244-1256.

Vitamin C

Harakeh S, et al. "Comparative analysis of ascorbate and AZT effects on HIV production in persistently infected cell lines." J Nutr Med. 1994;4:393-401.

Harakeh, S, et al. "Mechanistic aspects of ascorbate inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus." Chemico-Biol Interact. 1994;91:207-215.

Harakeh S, Jariwalla RJ. "Comparative study of anti-HIV activities of ascorbate and thiol-containing reducing agents and chronically HIV infected cells." Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:1231S-5S.

Davies S. "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascorbate in chronically and acutely infected cells." J Nutr Med. 1990;1:345-346

Cathcart RF. "Vitamin C in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)." Med Hypoth. 1984;14:423-433.

Vitamin E

Heredia A, Davis C. "In vitro suppression of latent HIV-1 activation by vitamin E: potential clinical implications." AIDS. 2005;19(8):836-837.

Tang AM, et al. "Association between serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 1997;11:613-620.

Pacht ER, et al. "Serum vitamin E decreases in HIV-seropositive subjects over time." J Lab and Clin Med. September,1997;130(3):293-296.

Wang Y, Watson RR. "Ethanol, immune responses, and murine AIDS: the role of vitamin E as an immunostimulant and antioxidant." Alcohol. 1994;11(2):75-84.

Wang Y, Watson RR. "Potential therapeutics of vitamin E (tocopherol) in AIDS and HIV." Drugs. 1994;48(3):327-338.

Odeleyc OE, Watson RR. "The potential role of vitamin E in the treatment of immunologic abnormalities during acquired immune deficiency syndrome." Progr Food Nutr Sci. 1991;15:1-19.

Gaby A. "Vitamin E enhances activity of AZT." Townsend Letter For Doctors. January,1991;11

Folic Acid

Vilaseca MA, et al. "Hyperhomocysteinaemia and folate deficiency in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected children." Eur J Clin Investig. 2001;31(11):992-998.

Friis H, et al. "HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe." Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1066- 1073.

Revell P, et al. "Folic acid absorption in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus." J Int Med. 1991;230:227-231.

Boudes P, et al. "Folate, vitamin B12, and HIV infection." Lancet. June9,1990;335:1401-1402.


Siberry GK, et al. "Zinc and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection." Nutr Res. 2002;22:527-538.

Kupka R, et al. "Zinc nutrition and HIV infection." Nutr Rev. March,2002;60(3):69-79.

Wellinghausen N, et al. "Zinc serum level in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to immunological status." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000;73:139-149.

Mocchegiani E, et al. "Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections." J Nutr. 2000;130:1424S-1431S.

Koch J, et al. "Zinc levels and infections in hospitalized patients with AIDS." Nutrition. 1996;12(7/8);515-518.

Hadden JW, "The treatment of zinc deficiency is an immunotherapy." Intl J Immunopharmacol. 1995;17(9):697-701.

Mocchegiani E, et al. "Benefit of oral zinc supplementation as an adjunct to zidovudine (AZT) therapy against opportunistic infections in AIDS." Intl J Immunopharmacol. 1995;17(9):719-727.

Reich EN, Church JA. "Oral zinc supplementation in the treatment of HIV-infected children." Ped AIDS HIV Infection Fetus To Adolescent. 1994;5(6):357-360.

Singer P, et al, "Nutritional aspects of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome." Am J Gastroenterol. March,1992;87(3):1992;265-273.

DeGordon AM. "Evaluation of tissue zinc status through cell-mediated response in HIV disease." J Am Coll Nutr. October,1992;11(5):602/Abstract18.

Harrer T, et al. "In vitro activation of peripheral mononuclear cells by zinc in HIV-infected patients and healthy controls." Clin Exper Immunol. 1992;89:285-289.

DeGordon AM. "Effects of adjuvant therapy with zinc in human immunodeficiency virus infection." J Am Coll Nutr. October,1992;11(5):601/Abstract 17.

Odeh M. "The role of zinc in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." J Int Med. 1992;231:463-469.

Zazzo TF, et al. "Effect of zinc on the immune status of zinc-depleted AIDS related complex patients." Clin Nutr. 1989;8:259-261.

Sergio W, et al. "Zinc salts that may be effective against the AIDS virus HIV." Med Hypoth. 1988;26:251-253.


Shor-Posner G, et al. "Impact of selenium status on the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease in HIV-1-infected drug users during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;29:169-173.

Barbaro G. "Selenium deficiency and HIV-associated cardiomyopathy." J Royal Soc Med. January,2002;95:57.

Look MP, et al. "Sodium selenite and N-acetylcysteine in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: a randomized, controlled pilot study." Eur J Clin Invest. 1998;28(5):389-397.

Look MP, et al. "Serum selenium, plasma glutathione (GSH) and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)-levels in asymptomatic versus symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection." Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:266-272.

Look MP, et al. "Serum selenium versus lymphocyte subsets and markers of disease progression and inflammatory response in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 infection." Biol Trace Element Res. 1997;56:31-41.

Delmas-Beauvieux MC, et al. "The enzymatic antioxidant system in blood and glutathione status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: effects of supplementation with selenium or B-carotene." Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:101-107.

Constans J, et al. "Serum selenium predicts outcome in HIV infection", J AIDS Hum Retrovirol. 1995;10(3):392.

Allavena C, et al. "Relationship of trace element, immunological markers, and HIV1 infection progression." Biol Trace Element Res. 1995;47:133.

Schrauzer GN, Sacher J. "Selenium in the maintenance and therapy of HIV-infected patients." Chemico-Biol Interact. 1994;91:199-205.

Mantero-Atienza E, et al. "Selenium status and immune function in asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive men." Nutr Res. 1991;11:1237-1250.

Cirelli A, et al. "Serum selenium concentrations and disease progress in patients with HIV infection." Clin Biochem. 1991; 24:211-214.

Kavanaugh-McHugh AL, et al. "Selenium deficiency in cardiomyopathy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." J Parenteral Enteral Nutr. 1991;15(3):347-349.

Dworkin BM, et al. "Reduced cardiac selenium content in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." J Parenteral Enteral Nutr. November/December1989;13(6):644-647.

Supplement References

N-Acetyl Cysteine

Kaiser JD, et al. "Micronutrient supplementation increases CD4 count in HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial." J Acquir Immune Defic Synd. 2006;42(5):523-8.

Staal FJT. "Glutathione and HIV infection: reduced reduced, or increased oxidized?" Eur J Clin Invest. 1998;28(3):194-196.

Morris K. "Glutathione may have major role in HIV-1 disease." The Lancet. 1997; March 15;349:781

Akerlund B, et al. "Effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment on HIV-1 infection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50:457-461.

Roberts RL, et al. "N-Acetylcysteine enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in neutrophils and mononuclear cells from healthy adults and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients." J Infect Dis. 1995;172:1492-1503.

Malorni W, et al. "N-acetylcysteine prevents TNF-induced mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and viral particle production in HIV-infected U937 cells." Redox Report. 1994;1:57-64.

Roederer M, et al. "N-acetylcysteine: potential for AIDS therapy." Pharmacol. 1993;46:121-129.

De Quay B, et al. "Glutathione depletion in HIV-infected patients: role of cysteine deficiency and effect of oral N-acetylcysteine." AIDS. 1992;6:815-819.

Droge W, et al. "HIV-induced cysteine deficiency and T-cell dysfunction - a rationale for treatment with N-acetylcysteine." Immunol Today. 1992;13(6):211-214.

Kalebic T, et al. "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus expression in chronically infected monocytic cells by glutathione, glutathione ester, and N-acetylcysteine." Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1991;88:986-990.

Roederer M, et al. "Cytokine-stimulated human immunodeficiency virus replication is inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine." Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1990;87:4884-4888.


Ferraresi R, et al. "Protective effect of acetyl-l-carnitine against oxidative stress induced by antiretroviral drugs." FEBS Lett. 2006;580(28-29):6612-6.

Loignon M, Toma E. "L-carnitine for the treatment of highly active antiretroviral therapy-related hypertriglyceridemia in hiv-infected adults." AIDS. 2001;15(9):1194-1195.

Di Marzio L, et al. "Acetyl-L-carnitine administration increases insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected subjects: correlation with its suppressive effect on lymphocyte apoptosis and ceramide generation." Clin Immunol. July,1999;92(1):103-110.

Famularo G, et al. "Carnitine stands on its own in HIV infection treatment." Arch Intern Med. May24,1999;159:1143.

Fatty Acids

Carter VM, et al. "A randomised controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected males on highly active antiretroviral therapy." Sex Health. 2006;3(4):287-90.

Agostoni C, et al. "Low levels of linoleic acid in plasma total lipids of HIV-1 seropositive children." J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(1):25-29.

Hellerstein MK, et al. "Effects of dietary N-3 fatty acid supplementation in men with weight loss associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: relation to indices of cytokine production." J AIDS Hum Retrovirol. 1996;11(3):258-270.

Lipoic Acid

Fuchs J, et al. "Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immune deficiency virus infected patients." Arzneim Forsch. 1993;43:1359-1362.

Suzuki YJ, et al. "Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-kB activation in human T cells." Biochen Biophys Res Commun. 1992;198:1709-1715.

Baur A, et al. "Alpha-lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication." Klin Wochenschr. 1991;69:722-724.


Brandon DL. "Interactions of diet and immunity." Adv Exp Med Biol. 1984;177:65-90.

Dowd PS, Heatley RV. "The influence of undernutrition on immunity." Clin Sci. 1984;66:241-8.

Chandra RK, et al. "Serum thymic factor activity in deficiencies of calories, zinc, vitamin A and pyridoxine." Clin Exp Immunol. 1980;42:332-335.

Chandra R, Newberne R. Nutrition, Immunity and Infection. Plenum Press; New York, NY, 1977.


Rodriguez JF, et al. "Plasma glutathione concentrations in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Ped Infect Dis J. 1998;17(3):236-241.

van der Ven AJAM, et al. "Glutathione homeostasis is disturbed in CD4-positive lymphocytes of HIV-seropositive individuals." Eur J Clin Invest. 1998;28(3):187-193.

Palamara AT, et al. "Glutathione inhibits HIV replication by acting at late stages of the virus life cycle." AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 1996;12(16):1537-1541.

Lomaestro BM, Malone M. "Glutathione in health and disease: pharmacotherapeutic issues." Ann Pharmacother. December,1995;29:1263-1273.

Stall F, et al. "Glutathione deficiency and human immunodeficiency virus infection." Lancet. April11,1992;339:909-912.

Robinson MK, et al. "Glutathione deficiency and HIV infection." Lancet. June27,1992;339:1603-1604.

"Glutathione found to suppress AIDS virus in human cell cultures." Prim Care Cancer. May1991;36.

Lactobacillus acidophilus

Cunningham-Rundles S, et al. "Probiotics and immune response." Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95(1.Suppl.):S22-S25.

Shahani KM, Friend BA. "Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli." J Appl Nutr. 1984;36:125-152.

Collins EB, Hardt P. "Inhibition of Candida albicans by lactobacillus acidophilus." J Dairy Sci. 1980;63:830-832.

Shahani KM, et al. "The role of dietary lactobacilli in gastrointestinal microecology." Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33:2448-2457.

Shahani KM, et al. "Natural antibiotic activity of lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus." Cult Dairy Prod J. 1977;12:8-11.

Gilliland SE, Speck MK. "Antagonistic action of laactobacillus acidophilus toward intestinal and food bourne pathogens in associative cultures." J Food Protection. 1977;40:820-823.

Coenzyme Q10

Bonakdar RA, Guarneri E. "Coenzyme Q10." Am Fam Phys. 2005;72(6):1065-70.

Rosenfeldt FL, et al. "Skeletal myopathy associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy: potential benefit of coenzyme Q10 therapy." Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16(12):827-9.

Folkers K, et al. "Biochemical deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in HIV-infection and exploratory treatment." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;153:888-896.


Kushi M, Jack A. The Cancer Prevention Diet. St Mattin's Press; New York, NY, 1983.

Pritikin D, Mcoety PM. The Pritican Program for Diet and Exercise. Groffit and Dunlap; New York, NY, 1979.

Anderson JW. "HCF diets: a professional guide to high carbohydrate high fiber diets." Univ of Kentucky Diabetes Fund; Lexington, KY, 1979.

DHEA and Androgens

Rabkin JG, et al. "Placebo-controlled trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for treatment of nonmajor depression in patients with HIV/AIDS." Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(1):59-66.

Rabkin JG, et al. "Testosterone versus fluoxetine for depression and fatigue in HIV/AIDS: a placebo-controlled trial." J Clin Psychopharmacol. August,2004;24(4):379-385.

Dolan S, et al. "Effects of testosterone administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with low weight: a randomized placebo-controlled study." Arch Intern Med. April26,2004;164:897-904.

Piketty C, et al. "Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in patients with advanced HIV disease." Clin Endocrinol. 2001;55:325-330.

Rabkin JG, et al. "DHEA treatment for HIV+ patients: effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters." Psychoneuroendocrinol. 2000;25:53-68.

Bhasin S, et al. "Testosterone replacement and resistance exercise in HIV-infected men with weight loss and low testosterone levels." JAMA. February9,2000;283(6):763-770.

Rabkin JG, et al. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of testosterone therapy for HIV-positive men with hypogonadal symptoms." Arch Gen Psychiatry. February,2000;57:141-147.

Bower B. "Testosterone shows hurtful, helpful sides." Science News. February19,2000;157:119.

Bhasin S, Javanbakht M. "Can androgen therapy replete lean body mass and improve muscle function in wasting associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection?" J P E N. November-December,1999;23(6):S195-S201.

Botanical References


Baltina LA, Tolstikov GA. "Glycyrrhizic acid as real surprise." Intl J Tissue Reactions. 1997;29(171):28.

Astragalus, Ganoderma (Reishi mushrooms)

Burack JH, et al. "Pilot randomized controlled trial of chinese herbal treatment for HIV-associated symptoms." J Acquired Immune Def Syndromes Hum Retrovirol. 1996;12:386-393.

Allium sativum (Garlic)

Balch JF, et al. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd Ed. Avery; NY, NY. 1993;102.

Adetumbi MA, Lin BH. "Allium sativum (garlic) - A natural antibiotic." Med Hypothesis. 1983;12:227-37.

Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort)

Degar S, et al. "Inactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus by hypericin: evidence fro photochemical alterations of p24 and a block in uncoating." Aids Res Human Retrovir. 1992;8:1929-1936.

Lavie G, et al. "Studies of the mechanisms of action of the antiretroviral agents hypericin and pseudohypericin." Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1989;86:5963-5967.

Meruelo D, et al. "Therapeutic agents with dramatic antiretroviral activity and little toxicity at effective doses: aromatic polycyclic diones hypericin and pseudohypericin." Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1988;85:5230-5234

Echinacea angustifolia, Ligusticum porteri, Arctium lappa, Acorus calamus, Hydrastis canadensis

Mitchell WA. Plant Medicine. Preparatory Manuscript; Seattle, WA; 2000.

Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine-From the Heart of the Earth. Wise Acres Press, Inc.; Creswell, OR; 1999.

Ogletree RL, Rischer RG. Physician's and Pharmacist's Guide to the Top 10 Scientifically Proven Natural Products. Natural Source Digest; 2nd Ed. Brandon, MS; 1997.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. DK Publishing; New York, NY; 1996.

Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Prima Publishing; Rocklin, CA; 1995.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy; Botanical Vol. II. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Felter HW. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Botanical Vol. 1. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Scalzo R. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas. 3rd Ed. Kivaki Press; Durango, CO; 1994.

Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. Dorling Kindersley; New York, NY; 1993.

Stansbury JE. Botanical Medicines Acting on the Respiratory System. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Stansbury JE. Pharmacognosy for the Herbal Practitioner. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Thomas L. 10 Essential Herbs. Hohm Press; Prescott, AZ; 1992.

Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers LTD; Beaconsfield, England; 1991.

Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Element Inc; Rockport, MA; 1991.

Mabey R, et al. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, NY; 1988. England;1988.

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Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

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Other Treatment References

Lacatobacillus Acidophilus Enema

Balch JF, et al. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd Ed. Avery; NY, NY. 1993;546.

Chelate Excess Iron

Boelaert JR, et al. "Altered iron metabolism in HIV infection: mechanisms, possible consequences, and proposals for management." Infect Agents Dis. January,1996.

Weinberg GA. "Iron overload as a mechanism for the lowered survival in AIDS patients receiving Dapsone-Iron Protoxalate for secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." J Infect Dis. July,1996;174:241.

Constitutional Hydrotherapy

Boyle W. Saine A. Lectures in Naturopathic Hydrotherapy. Buckeye Naturopathic Press; East Palestine, OH; 1988.

Thrash, A, Thrash C. Home Remedies. Thrash Publications; Seale, AL; 1981.


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Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).