Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for Bronchitis

. Diet and Nutrition References

Food Allergy

Krawczyk Z. "Role of allergy of the immediate type in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis in adults." Pneumonol Pol. August-September,1976;44(8-9):829-836.

Shanghai Chronic Bronchitis Group. "Preliminary study on the relation between allergy and chronic bronchitis: relationship between chronic bronchitis to immediate hypersensitivity; relationship of chronic bronchitis and immune complex reaction." Chin Med J. January,1976;2(1):63-68.

Businco L, Businco E. "Allergic pathogenesis in chronic bronchitis." Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). Jan-Feb,1975;3(1):1-8.

Rowe AH, et al. "Food allergy -its role in the symptoms of obstructive emphysema and chronic bronchitis." J Asthma Res. September,1967;5(1):11-20.

Draper WL. "The otolaryngologist and the allergic child." Southern Med J. February,1966;59:217-220.

Rowe AH, Rowe A. "Food allergy: its role in emphysema and chronic bronchitis." Dis Chest. 1965;48:609.


Dorsch W, et al. "New antiasthmatic drugs from traditional medicine?" Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1991;94(1-4):262-5.

Drink Warm Fluids

Liu FC. "Changes in superoxide dismutases and serum Zn, Cu in senile patients with yang deficiency." Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. 1991;Aug;11(8):473-4, 452-3.


Marz RB. Medical Nutrition from Marz, 2nd ed. Omni Press; Portland, OR; 1997:323.

Vitamin and Mineral References

Vitamin A, Beta Carotene

Lippman SM, et al. "The effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid chemoprevention on human serum retinol levels." Cancer Detect Prev. 1998;22(1):51-6.

Kjolhede CL, et al. "Clinical trial of vitamin A as adjuvant treatment for lower respiratory tract infections." J Pediatr. 1995; May;126(5 Pt 1):807-12.

Ogaro FO, et al. "Effect of vitamin A on diarrhoeal and respiratory complications of measles." Trop Geogr Med. 1993;45(6):283-6.

An G, et al. "Expression of a squamous cell marker, the spr1 gene, is posttranscriptionally down-regulated by retinol in airway epithelium." J Cell Physiol. 1993;Dec;157(3):562-8.

McDowell EM, et al. "Effects of vitamin A-deficiency and inflammation on the conducting airway epithelium of Syrian golden hamsters." Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1990;59(4):231-42.

Vitamin C

Evans AT, et al. "Azithromycin for acute bronchitis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial." Lancet. 2002;359:1648-1654.

Hemila H. "Vitamin C and infectious diseases." Vitamin C: The State of the Art in Disease Prevention Sixty Years After the Nobel Prize. 1998:73-85.

Sridhar MK. "Nutrition and lung health." Br Med J. January14,1995;310:75-76.

Hunt C, et al. "The clinical effects of vitamin C supplementation in elderly hospitalised patients with acute respiratory infections."Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1994;64(3):212-9.

Schwartz J, Weiss ST. "Relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and pulmonary function in the first national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES I)." Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:110-4.

Schwartz J, Weiss ST. "Dietary factors and their relation to respiratory symptoms. The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey." Am J Epidemiol. 1990;Jul;132(1):67-76.

Vitamin E

Muller B, et al. "Alpha-tocopherol improves impaired physiology of rat type II pneumocytes isolated from experimentally injured lungs." Eur J Clin Invest. 2000;Nov;30(11):1018-26.

Rautalahti M, et al. " The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on COPD symptoms." Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997; Nov;156(5):1447-52.

Amatuni VG, Safarian MD. "Metabolic aspects of the differential diagnosis of chronic asthmatic bronchitis and bronchial asthma." Ter Arkh. 1986;58(12):12-4.

Ehrenkranz RA, et al. "Amelioration of bronchopulmonary dysplasia after vitamin E administration. A preliminary report." N Engl J Med. 1978;Sep 14;299(11):564-9.

Zinc and Copper

Lebedeva ES, et al. "Content of trace elements and steroid hormones in blood and tissues of internal organs of rats during an inflammatory process in the bronchi." Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1992;May-Jun;(3):3-5.

Tadzhiev FS. "[Trace elements in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic bronchitis (a clinico-experimental study." Ter Arkh. 1991;63(3):68-70.

Schwartz J, Weiss ST. "Dietary factors and their relation to respiratory symptoms. The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey." Am J Epidemiol. 1990;Jul;132(1):67-76.

Supplement References

N-Acetyl Cysteine

Decramer M, et al. "Effects of N-acetylcysteine on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Bronchitis Randomized on NAC Cost-Utility Study, BRONCUS): A randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. Apr30,2005;365:1552-1560.

Lukas R, et al. "Administration of N-acetylcysteine and vitamin C to augment antioxidant protection in patients with chronic bronchitis." Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2005;130:563-567.

Van Schayck CP, et al. "Are anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory treatments effective in different subgroups of COPD? a hypothesis." Resp Med. 1998;92:1259-1264.

Volkl KP, Schneider B. "Therapy of respiratory tract diseases with N-acetylcysteine. an open therapeutic observation study of 2,512 patients." Fortschr Med. June30,1992;110(18):346-350.

Larson M. "Clinical recognition of N-acetyl cysteine in chronic bronchitis." Euro Resp Reviews. 1992;2(7):5-8.

Millman M, et al. "Use of acetylcysteine in bronchial asthma -another look." Ann Allergy. April,1985;54:294-296.

Boman G, et al. "Oral acetylcysteine reduces exacerbation rate in chronic bronchitis: report of a trial organized by the Swedish Society for Pulmonary Disease." Eur J Respir Dis. 1983;64:405-415.

Pozzi E, Ferrari V. "Long-term oral acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis: a double-blind controlled study." Eur J Respir Dis. 1980;61(Suppl 111):93-108.


Terao J. "Dietary flavonoids as antioxidants in vivo: conjugated metabolites of (-)-epicatechin and quercetin participate in antioxidative defense in blood plasma." J Med Invest. 1999; Aug;46(3-4):159-68.

Dorsch W, et al. "Antiasthmatic effects of Galphimia glauca, gallic acid, and related compounds prevent allergen- and platelet-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction as well as bronchial hyperreactivity in guinea pigs." Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1992;97(1):1-7.

Balabolkin II, et al. "Use of vitamins in allergic illnesses in children." Vopr Med Khim. 1992;Sep-Oct;38(5):36-40.

Marz RB. Medical Nutrition from Marz, 2nd ed. Omni Press; Portland, OR; 1997:323.


Ryan R, et al. "A double blind clinical evaluation of bromelains in the treatment of acute sinusitis." Headache. 1967;7:13-17.

Neubauer R. "A plant protease for the potentiation of and possible replacedment of antibiotics." Exp Med Surg. 1961;19:143-160.

Lung Glandular

Stein J. "Objective demonstration of the organ-specific effectiveness of cellular preparations." In: Schmid F, ed; Cell Research and Cellular Therapy. Ott Publishers; Thoune (Switzerland); 1967:294-301.

Neumann KH. "The influence of tissue injections on experimental liver damage." In:Schmid F, ed; Cell Research and Cellular Therapy. Ott Publishers; Thoune (Switzerland); 1967:368-79.

Stein J. "Specific effect on implanted endocrine tissues." In:Schmid F, ed; Cell Research and Cellular Therapy. Ott Publishers; Thoune (Switzerland); 1967:340-67.

Botanical References

Usnea spp, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Echinacea angustifolia, Lomatium disectum, Asclepias tuberosa, Sanguinaria canadensia, Capsicum frutescens

Mitchell WA. Plant Medicine. Preparatory Manuscript; Seattle, WA; 2000.

Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine-From the Heart of the Earth. Wise Acres Press, Inc.; Creswell, OR; 1999.

Ogletree RL, Rischer RG. Physician's and Pharmacist's Guide to the Top 10 Scientifically Proven Natural Products. Natural Source Digest; 2nd Ed. Brandon, MS; 1997.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. DK Publishing; New York, NY; 1996.

Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Prima Publishing; Rocklin, CA; 1995.

Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas, 4th ed. Herbal Researcher Publications Inc. Ayer, AM; 1995.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy; Botanical Vol. II. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Felter HW. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Botanical Vol. 1. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Scalzo R. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas. 3rd Ed. Kivaki Press; Durango, CO; 1994.

Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. Dorling Kindersley; New York, NY; 1993.

Stansbury JE. Botanical Medicines Acting on the Respiratory System. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Stansbury JE. Pharmacognosy for the Herbal Practitioner. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Thomas L. 10 Essential Herbs. Hohm Press; Prescott, AZ; 1992.

Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers LTD; Beaconsfield, England; 1991.

Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Element Inc; Rockport, MA; 1991.

Mabey R, et al. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, NY; 1988. England;1988.

Tyler VE, et al. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. Lea & Febiger; Philadelphia, PA; 1988.

Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; Essex; 1988

Carr A, et al. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale Press; Emmaus, PA; 1987.

Mowrey DB. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Keats Publishing, Inc.; New Canaan, CT; 1986.

Beyer P. The Master Book of Herbalism. Phoenix Publishing; Custer, WA; 1984.

Goodenough J. Dr. Goodenough's Home Cures & Herbal Remedies. Avenel Books; New York, NY; 1982.

Millspaugh CF. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1974.

Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. I & II; Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1971.

Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

Kent JT. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers (P) LTD; New Delhi, India; 1991.

Boericke W. Materia Medica with Repertory, 9th Ed..Boericke & Tafel, Inc.; Santa Rosa, CA; 1927.

Other Treatment References

Heating Compress, Steam Inhalation, Heating Pad

Balch JF, et al. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. Avery Publishing; NY, NY; 1997:168.

Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).