Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

. Diet and Nutrition References


Kronfeld DS. "Health claims for pet foods: particulars." J Am Veterinary Med Assoc. July15,1994;205(2):174-177.

Belmin J. "Low sodium diet and congestive heart failure in the elderly." J Am Geriatr Soc. March,1992;40(3):298-299.

Wester PO et al. "Intracellular electrolytes in cardiac failure." Acta Med Scand. 1986;(Suppl)707:33-36.

Caffeine, Refined Carbohydrates, Saturated Fats and Fiber

de Lorgeril M, et al. "Diet and medication for heart protection in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. new concepts." Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000;10:216-222.

Murray MT. "Natural support for congestive heart failure." Am J Nat Med. June,1997;4(5):14-17.

Balch JF et al. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd Ed. Avery Publishing, NY, NY. 1997. p.190.

Vitamin and Mineral References


Howard C, et al. "Oxidative protein damage is associated with poor grip strength among older women living in the community." J Appl Physiol. Mar22,2007.

de Lorgeril M, et al. "Dietary and blood antioxidants in patients with chronic heart failure. Insights into the potential importance of selenium in heart failure." Eur J Heart Failure. 2001;3:661-669.

Dhalla NS, et al. "Role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases." J Hypertens. 2000;18(6):655-673.

Khaper N, et al. "Effects of afterload-reducing drugs on pathogenesis of antioxidant changes and congestive heart failure in rats." J Am Col Cardiol. 1997;29:856-861.

Dhalla AK, et al. "Role of oxidative stress in transition of hypertrophy to heart failure." J Am Col Cardiol. August,1996;28(2):506-514.

Ganguly PK. "Antioxidant therapy in congestive heart failure: is there any advantage." J Int Med. 1991;229:205-208.

Belch JJF, et al. "Oxygen free radicals and congestive heart failure." Br Heart J. 1991;6S:245-248.

Kirshenbaum LA, et al. "Antioxidant protection against adrenaline-induced arrhythmias in rats with chronic heart hypertrophy (congestive heart failure)." Can J Cardiol. March,1990;6(2);71-74.

Singal PK, Kirshenbaum LA. "A relative deficit in antioxidant reserve may contribute in cardiac failure." Can J Cardiol. March,1990;6(2):47-49.

McMurray J, et al. "Evidence for enhanced free radical activity in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease." Am J Cardiol. May15,1990;65:1261-1262.

Konz KH, et al. "Lack of antioxidant systems causes cardiomyopathy." J Mol Cel Cardiol. l989;2l,Suppl.2,Article#242.

Vitamin B1

Hanninen SA, et al. "The prevalence of thiamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure." J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:354-61.

Duell T, et al. "Thiamine-deficiency and lactate acidosis in a patient under long-term diuretic therapy." Dtsch Med Wschr. 2000;125:1232-1234.

Pepersack T, et al. "Clinical relevance of thiamine status amongst hospitalized elderly patients." Gerontol. 1999;45:96-101.

Leslie D, et al. "Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure." Am Heart J. 1996;131:1248-1250.

Shimon I, et al. "Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive-heart-failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy." Am J Med. 1995;98(5):45-490.

Pfitzenmeyer P, et al. "Thiamine status of elderly patients with cardiac failure including the effects of supplementation." Intl J Vit Nut Res. 1994;64:113-118.

Levy W, et al. "Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure." Am J Med. December,1992;93:705-706.

Kwok T, et al. "Thiamine status of elderly patients with cardiac failure." Age Ageing. 1992;21:000:1-5.

Vitamin C

Piccirillo G,et al. "Influence of vitamin C on baroreflex sensitivity in chronic heart failure." Hypertension. June,2003;41:1240-1245.

Mak S, et al. "Vitamin c prevents hyperoxia-mediated vasoconstriction and impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H2414-H2421.

Rossig L, et al. "Vitamin C inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in congestive heart failure." Circulation. 2001;104:2182-2187.

Hornig B, et al. "Vitamin C improves endothelial function of conduit arteries in patients with chronic heart failure." Circ. 1998;97:363-368.

Watanabe H, et al. "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ascorbate on the preventive effect of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure." Circ. 1998;97:886-891.

Keith M, et al. "Increased oxidative stress in patients with congestive heart failure." J Am Col Cardiol. May,1998;31(6):1352-1356.

Vitamin D

Schleithoff SS, et al. "Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):754-9.

Zittermann A, et al. "Low vitamin D status: a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure?" J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(1):105-112.

Shane E, et al. "Bone mass, vitamin D deficiency, and hyperparathyroidism in congestive heart failure." Am J Med. 1997;103:197-207.

Brunvand L, et al. "Congestive heart failure caused by vitamin D deficiency." ACTA Pediatrica. 1995;84:106-8.

Vitamin E

Ghatak A, et al. "Oxy free radical system in heart failure and therapeutic role of oral vitamin E." Intl J Cardiol. 1996;57:119-127.

Beamish R. "Vitamin E - then and now." Can J Cardiol. January/February,1993;9(1):29-31.


Gorelik O,et al. "Dietary intake of various nutrients in older patients with congestive heart failure." Cardiol. 2003;99:177-181.

Swain R, Kaplan-Machlis B. "Magnesium for the next millennium." South Med J. November,1999;92(11):1040-1047.

Khalil SI. "Magnesium, the forgotten cation." Intl J Cardiol. 1999;68:133-135.

Costello RB, et al. "Magnesium supplementation in patients With congestive heart failure." J Am Col Nutr. 1997;16(1):22-31.

Seelig M, Altura BM. "How best to determine magnesium requirement: need to consider cardiotherapeutic drugs that affect its retention." J Am Col Nutr. 1997;16(1):4-6.

Shechter M, et al. "Review of clinical evidence - is there a role for supplemental magnesium in acute myocardial infarction in high-risk populations (patients ineligible for thrombolysis and the elderly)?" Coronary Art Dis. 1996;7:352-358.

Baxter GF, et al. "Infarct size and magnesium: insights into LIMIT-2 and ISIS-4 from experimental studies." Lancet. November23,1996;348:1424-1426.

Shechter M, et al. "Magnesium as alternative therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction who are not candidates for thrombolytic therapy." Mag-Bulletin. 1995;17(3):75-78.

Smetana R, et al. "Moderate magnesium-sparing effect of high dosage ACE-inhibitor therapy in chronic heart failure." Mag Bulletin. 1994;16(3):98-100.

"IV magnesium: a cost-effective antiarrhythmic." Emergency Med. May,1994;53.

Browne SE. "The case for intravenous magnesium treatment of arterial disease in general practice: review of 34 years of experience." J Nutr Med. 1994;4:169-177.

Whang R, et al. "Magnesium homeostasis and clinical disorders of magnesium deficiency." Annals Pharmacotherapy. 1994;28:220-226.

Gottlieb SS, et al. "Effects of intravenous magnesium sulfate on arrhythmias in patients with congestive heart failure." Am Heart J. June,1993;125:1645-1649.

Matz R. "Magnesium: deficiencies and therapeutic uses." Hosp Prac. April30,1993;79-92.

Costello RB, et al. "Magnesium status in patients with congestive heart failure." J Am Col Nutr. October,1992;11(5):609/Abstract 42.

Purvis JR, Movahed A. "Magnesium disorders and cardiovascular diseases." Clin Cardiol. August,1992;15:556-568.

Gottlieb SS, et al. "Does intravenous magnesium sulfate decrease arrhythmia frequency in CHF?" Circulation. October,1991;84(4):2-58/Abstract 233.

"CHF, there's a hidden problem: magnesium deficiency." Osteopath Med News. March,1991;8(3);5.

Tzivoni D, Keren A. "Suppression of ventricular arrhythmias by magnesium." Am J Cardiol. June1,1990;65:1397-1399.

Gould LA, et al. "Magnesium treatment of Torsades Des Pointes - a case report." Angiol. July,1990;41(7):577-581.

Gottlieb SS, et al. "Prognostic importance of serum magnesium concentration in patients with Congestive Heart Failure." J Am Col Cardiol. October,1990;16(4):827-831.

Friedman HS. "The role of magnesium and congestive heart failure and its effects on the cardiovascular system." J Am Col Nutr. 1989;8(5):454,Abstract109.


Gorelik O,et al. "Dietary intake of various nutrients in older patients with congestive heart failure." Cardiol. 2003;99:177-181.

Avery PG, et al. "Cardiac failure due to hypocalcemia of nutritional osteomalacia." Eur Heart J. 1992;13:426-427.

Opie LH. "Principles of therapy for congestive heart failure." Eur Heart J, 1983;4(Suppl A):199-208.


Dorup I, et al. "Oral magnesium supplementation restores concentrations of magnesium, potassium and sodium-potassium pumps in skeletal muscle patients receiving diuretic treatment." J Int Med. 1993;233:117-123.

Packer M. "Potential role of potassium as determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure". Am J Cardiol. 1990;56:45E-51E.

Supplement References

Coenzyme Q10

Weant KA, Smith KM. "The role of coenzyme Q10 in heart failure." Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39(9):1522-6.

Salles JE, et al. "Myocardial dysfunction in mitochondrial diabetes treated with Coenzyme Q10." Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005.

Soongswang J, et al. "The effect of coenzyme Q10 on idiopathic chronic dilated cardiomyopathy in children." Pediatr Cardiol. Jan27,2005.

Bhagavan HN, Chopra RK. "Potential role of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) in pediatric cardiomyopathy." Clin Nutr. 2005;24:331-338.

Jeejeebhoy F, et al. "Nutritional supplementation with myovive repletes essential cardiac myocyte nutrients and reduces left ventricular size in patients with left ventricular dysfunction." Am Heart J. 2002;143:1092-1100.

Khatta M, et al. "The effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure." Ann Intern Med. April18,2000;132(8):636-640.

Overvad K, et al. "Coenzyme Q10 in health and disease." Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53:764-770.

Singal PK, et al. "On the role of coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular diseases." Cardiovasc Res. 1999;43:250-251.

Soja AM, et al. "Treatment of chronic cardiac insufficiency with coenzyme Q10, results of meta-analysis in controlled clinical trials." Dec1,1997;159(49):7302-7308.

Folkers K. "Heart failure as a dominant deficiency of coenzyme Q10 and challenges for future clinical research on coenzyme Q10." Clin Invest. 1993;71:S51-S54.

Lampertico M, et al. "Italian multicenter study on the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as an adjuvant therapy in heart failure." Clin Invest. 1993;71:S 129-S 133.

Morisco C, et al. "Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study." Clin Invest. 1993;71:S134-S136.

Jameson S. "Statistical data support prediction of death within 6 months on low levels of coenzyme Q10 and other entities." Clin Invest. 1993;71:S137-S139.

Digiesi V, et al. "Mechanism of action of coenzyme Q10 in essential hypertension." Current Ther Res. May,1992;51(5):668-672.

Greenberg S, Frishman WH. "Co-enzyme Q10: a new drug for cardiovascular disease." J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;30:596-608.

Mortensen SA, et al. "Coenzyme Q10: clinical benefits with biochemical correlates suggesting a scientific breakthrough in the management of chronic heart failure." Intl J Tiss Reac. 1990;12(3):155-162.


Safi AM, et al. "Role of nutriceutical agents in cardiovascular diseases: An update - Part II." CVR&R. August,2003;24:405-412.

Rizos I. "Three-year survival of patients with heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and l-carnitine administration." Am Heart J. February,2000;139(2 Part 3):S120-S123.

Iliceto S, et al. "Effects of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: the L-carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) Trial." J Am Col Cardiol. August,1995;26(2):380-7.

Zales VR, Benson DW Jr. "Reversible cardiomyopathy due to carnitine deficiency from renal tubular wasting." Pediatr Cardiol. March-April 1995;16(2):76-78.

Caponetto S, et al. "Efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction." Eur Heart J. 1994;15:1267-1273.

MandelkerL, Aucion D. "L-carnitine therapeutic or theoretical." Veterinary Forum. August,1994;54-55.

Kobayashi A, et al. "L-Carnitine treatment for heart failure -- experimental and clinical studies." Jap Circ J. January,1992;56:86-94.

Pepine CJ. "The therapeutic potential of carnitine in cardiovascular disorders." Clin Ther. January-February,1991;13(1):2-21 (Discussion 1).

Regitz V, et al. "Defective myocardial carnitine metabolism in congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and to coronary, hypertensive and valvular heart diseases." Am J Cardiol. March15,1990;755-760.


Safi AM, et al. "Role of nutriceutical agents in cardiovascular diseases: An update - Part I." CVR&R. July 2003;24:381-385.391.

Takahashi K, et al. "Taurine prevents intracellular calcium overload during calcium paradox of cultured cardiomyocytes." Amino Acids. 1997;13:1-11.

Chapman RA, et al. "Taurine and the heart." Cardiovasc Res. 1993:27:358-363.

Dow SW, et al. "Taurine depletion and cardiovascular disease in cats fed a potassium-depleted, acidified diet." Am J Veterinary Res. March,1992;53(3):402-405.

Elizarova AE, et al. "Taurine protects heart membranes of rabbit with chronic congestive heart failure." J Mol Cell Cardiol. l989;2lSuppl.2,No.l24.

Azuma J et al. "Taurine for treatment of congestive heart failure". Intl J Cardiol. 1982;2:303

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Freeman LM, et al. "Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure." J Vet Intern Med. 1998;12:440-448.

Freeman LM. "Interventional Nutrition for Cardiac Disease." Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. November,1998;13(4):232-237.

McCarty MF. "Fish oil and other nutritional adjuvants for treatment of congestive heart failure." Med Hypoth., 1996;46:400-406.

Keene BW. "Use of fish oil for canine heart failure." Small Animal Med Surg. October,1995;8(10):1-2.

Heart and Kidney Glandulars

Stein J. "Objective demonstration of the organ-specific effectiveness of cellular preparations." In: Schmid F, ed; Cell Research and Cellular Therapy. Ott Publishers; Thoune (Switzerland); 1967:294-301.

Stein J. "Specific effect on implanted endocrine tissues." In:Schmid F, ed; Cell Research and Cellular Therapy. Ott Publishers; Thoune (Switzerland); 1967:340-67.

Neumann KH. "The influence of tissue injections on experimental liver damage." In:Schmid F, ed; Cell Research and Cellular Therapy. Ott Publishers; Thoune (Switzerland); 1967:368-79.


Wu G, Meininger CJ. "Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function." J Nutr. 2000;130:2626-2629.

Bocchi EA, et al. "L-arginine reduces heart rate and improves hemodynamics in severe congestive heart failure." Clin Cardiol. 2000;23:205-210.

Lonsdorfer J, et al. "L-arginine, a familiar compound...with a promising future." Sem Hop Paris. 1999;75(33-34);1255-1264.

Kanaya Y, et al. "Effects of L- arginine on lower limb vasodilator reserve and exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure." Heart. May,1999;81(5):512-517.

Tenenbaum A, et al. "L-arginine: rediscovery in progress." Cardiol. 1998;90:153-159.

Kubota T, et al. "L-arginine increases exercise-induced vasodilation of the forearm in patients with heart failure." Jap Circ J. 1997;61:471-480.

Koifman B, et al. "Improvement of cardiac performance by intravenous infusion of L-arginine in patients with moderate congestive heart failure." J Am Col Cardiol. November1,1995;26(5):1251-6.

Hirooka Y, et al. "Effects of L-arginine on impaired acetylcholine-induced and ischemic vasodilation of the forearm in patients with heart failure." Circulation. August,1994;90(20):658-668.

Botanical References

Crataegus oxycantha (Hawthorne)

Melzer J, et al. "Crataegus berries: heart complaints, congestive heart failure NYHA I and II - a systematic review." Perfusion. 2003;16:358-362.

Petry JJ. "Medicinal herbs: answers and advice, Part 2." Hadley SK. Hosp Prac. August15,2001:55-59.

Walsh N. "Hawthorn extract may benefit aging hearts."Fam Prac News. December1,2001:8.

Kraft K. "Crataegus (common Hawthorn) extracts in cardiac failure -are there new promising results and outlooks?" Perfusion. 2000;13:495-498.

Walsh N. "Hawthorn for heart failure." Eur J Heart Fail. 2000;2(4):431-437.

Mashour NH, et al. "Herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: clinical considerations." Arch Intern Med. November9,1998;158:2225-2234.

Murray MT. "Natural support for congestive heart failure." Am J Nat Med. June,1997;4(5):14-17.

Gingko biloba

Golan R. Optimal Wellness, Ballantine Books, NY, NY. 1995. p.375

Petkov et al. "Participation of the serotonergic system in the memory effects of Ginkgo biloba L. and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Phytotherapy Res. 1994;8:470-477.

Panax ginseng

Petkov VD, et al. "Effects of standardized extracts GK501, from Ginkgo biloba L., G115 from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, and their combination, Gincosan(PHL-00701), on the brain levels of biogenic monoamines and on the serum content of prolactin, growth hormone and ACTH." Phytotherpay Res. 1993;7:139-145.

Petkov, Mosharrof. "Age - and individual-related specificities in the effects of standardized ginseng extract on learning and memory (experiments on rats)." Phtyotherapy Res. 1987;1(2):80-83.

Zingiber officinale

Henry CJK, Piggott SM. "Effect of ginger on metabolic rate." Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1987;41C:89-92.

Eldershaw TPD, et al. "Pungent principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale) are thermogenic in the perfused rat hind limb." Int J Obes. 1992;16:755-63.

Arctium lappa, Zanthoxyllum clava-herculis officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Capsicum frutescens

Mitchell WA. Plant Medicine. Preparatory Manuscript; Seattle, WA; 2000.

Bielory L, Lupoli K. "Herbal interventions in asthma and allergy." J Asthma. 1999;36(1):1-65.

Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine-From the Heart of the Earth. Wise Acres Press, Inc.; Creswell, OR; 1999.

Ziment I. "How your patients may be using herbalism to treat their asthma." J Resp Dis. December,1998;19(12):1070-1081.

Ogletree RL, Rischer RG. Physician's and Pharmacist's Guide to the Top 10 Scientifically Proven Natural Products. Natural Source Digest; 2nd Ed. Brandon, MS; 1997.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. DK Publishing; New York, NY; 1996:55.

Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Prima Publishing; Rocklin, CA; 1995.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy; Botanical Vol. II. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Felter HW. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Botanical Vol. 1. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Scalzo R. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas. 3rd Ed. Kivaki Press; Durango, CO; 1994.

Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. Dorling Kindersley; New York, NY; 1993.

Stansbury JE. Botanical Medicines Acting on the Respiratory System. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Stansbury JE. Pharmacognosy for the Herbal Practitioner. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Thomas L. 10 Essential Herbs. Hohm Press; Prescott, AZ; 1992.

Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers LTD; Beaconsfield, England; 1991.

Hoffman, D. The New Holistic Herbal. Element Inc; Rockport, MA; 1991.

Mabey R, et al. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, NY; 1988. England;1988.

Tyler VE, et al. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. Lea & Febiger; Philadelphia, PA; 1988.

Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; Essex; 1988

Carr A, et al. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale Press; Emmaus, PA; 1987.

Mowrey DB. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Keats Publishing, Inc.; New Canaan, CT; 1986.

Beyer P. The Master Book of Herbalism. Phoenix Publishing; Custer, WA; 1984.

Goodenough J. Dr. Goodenough's Home Cures & Herbal Remedies. Avenel Books; New York, NY; 1982.

Millspaugh CF. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1974.

Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. I & II; Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1971.

Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

Kent JT. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers (P) LTD; New Delhi, India; 1991.

Boericke W. Materia Medica with Repertory, 9th Ed..Boericke & Tafel, Inc.; Santa Rosa, CA; 1927.

Other Treatment References


Meyer T, et al. "Exercise programmes for patients with chronic heart failure." Sports Med. 2004;34(14):939-954.

Piepoli MF, et al. "Exercise training meta-analysis of trials in patients with chronic heart failure (extramatch)." BMJ USA. March,2004;4:109-112.

Witham MD,et al. "Exercise training as a therapy for chronic heart failure: can older people benefit?" J Am Geriatr Soc. May,2003;51(5):699-709.

McKelvie RS, et al. "Effects of exercise training in patients with heart failure: the exercise rehabilitation trial (EXERT)." Am Heart J. July,2002;144(1):23-30.

Delagardelle C,et al. "Strength/endurance training versus endurance training in congestive heart failure." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(12):1868-1872.

Radzewitz A, et al. "Exercise and muscle strength training and their effect on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure." Eur J Heart Failure. 2002;4:627-634.

Beniaminovitz A, et al. "Selective low-level leg muscle training alleviates dyspnea in patients with heart failure." J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40(9):1602-1608.

Hambrecht R, et al. "Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function and peripheral resistance in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized trial." JAMA. June21,2000;283(23):3095-3101.

Ali A, et al. "Effects of aerobic exercise training on indices of ventricular repolarization in patients with chronic heart failure." Chest. July,1999;116(1):83-87.

Belardinelli R, et al. "Randomized, controlled trial of long-Term moderate exercise training in chronic heart failure: effects on functional capacity, quality of life, and clinical outcome." Circulation. March9,1999;99:1173-1182.

Keteyian SJ, et al. "Effects of exercise training on chronotropic incompetence in patients with heart failure." Am Heart J. August,1999;138(2part1):233-240.

Abinader EG, et al. "Effects of low altitude on exercise performance in patients with congestive heart failure after healing of acute myocardial infarction." Am J Cardiol. February1,1999;83:383-387.

Wielenga RP, et al. "Exercise training in elderly patients with chronic heart failure." Coronary Artery Dis. 1998;9(11):765-770.

Wielenga RP, et al. "Effect of exercise training on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure." J Psychosom Res. 1998;45(5):459-464.

Meyer K, et al. "Effects of exercise training and activity restriction on 6-minute walking test performance in patients with chronic heart failure." Am Heart J. 1997;133(4):447-453.

Meyer K, et al. "Effects of short-term exercise training and activity restriction on functional capacity in patients with severe chronic congestive heart failure." Am J Cardiol. 1996;78:1017-1022.

Oka RK, et al. "Predictors of physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to either ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy." Am J Cardiol. January15,1996;77:159-163.

Keteyian SJ, et al. "Exercise training in patients with heart failure: a randomized, controlled trial." Annals Int Med. 1996;124:1051-1057.

Bullock C. "CHF patients workout in study, with longer lifespan a possibility." Med Trib. May13,1993;4.

Moore DP, et al. "Effects of increased inspired oxygen concentrations on exercise performance in chronic heart failure." Lancet. April4,1992;339:850-853.

Air Pollution

Morris RD, et al. "Ambient air pollution and hospitalization for congestive heart failure among elderly people in seven large U.S. cities." Am J Public Health. October,1995;85(10):1361-1365.


Tucker ME. "Subclinical hypothyroidism linked to heart failure." Fam Prac News. Jul1,2005:23.

Danzi S, Klein I. "Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system." Minerva Endocrinol. 2004;29:139-150.

Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).