Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

. Diet and Nutrition References

Food Elimination Diet

Kipen HM, et al. "Prevalence of chronic fatigue and chemical sensitivities in Gulf registry veterans." Arch Environ Health. September/October. 1999;54(5):313-318.

Borish L, et al. "Chronic fatigue syndrome: identification of distinct subgroups on the basis of allergy and psychologic variables." J Allergy Clin Immunol. August,1998;102(2):222-230.

Borok G. "Another answer to yuppie flu?" S Afr Med J. August 19,1989;76:176.


Hughes JR, et al. "Caffeine self-administration, withdrawl, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers." Arch Gen Psych. 1991;48:611-17.


Kawashima Y, et al. "Clinical study of KYOLEOPIN for patients with hyperlipemia." Treat New Med. 1989;26(3):377-388.

Okada K, Miyagaki H. "Effect of Kyoleopin (KLE) on fatigue and non-specific complaints: clinical study." Clin Rep. July20,1983;17:2173-2183.

Vitamin and Mineral References


Cunha BA. "Beta-carotene stimulation of natural killer cell activity in adult patients with chronic fatigue syndrome." The CFIDS Chronical Physician's Forum. 1993;Fall:18.

Vitamin B5

Heap LC, et al. "Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome," J R Soc Med. April,1999;92:183-185.

Marz RB. Medical Nutrition from Marz, 2nd ed. Omni Press; Portland, OR; 1997:207.

Vitamin B12, Folate, Tryptophan

Werbach MR. "Other nutritional strategies in chronic fatigue syndrome." J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15(5):539/Abstract 95.

Jacobson W, et al. "Serum folate and chronic fatigue syndrome." Neurol. December,1993;43:2645-2647.

Lapp CW, Cheney PR. "The rationale for using high-dose cobalamin (vitamin B12)." CFIDS Chron Phys Forum. 1993;Autumn:19-20.

Schilling RF, Morris FK. "Is vitamin B12 a tonic?" Wisconsin Med J. May,1971;70:143-144.

Vitamin C

Kennedy G, et al. "Oxidative stress levels are raised in chronic fatigue syndrome and are associated with clinical symptoms." Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;39(5):584-9.

Manuel y Keenoy B, et al. "Antioxidant status and lipoprotein peroxidation in chronic fatigue syndrome." Life Sci. 2001;68:2037-2049.

Shay WW. "Ascorbic acid for chronic fatigue: if it works it works." Cortlandt Forum. April 1991;35/38-4.

Ali M. "Ascorbic acid reverses abnormal erythrocyte morphology in chronic fatigue syndrome." Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;94(4):515(Abstract #117).


Manuel y Keenoy B, et al. "Magnesium status and parameters of the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with chronic fatigue: effects of supplementation with magnesium." J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(3):374-382.

Durlach J. "Chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic primary magnesium deficiency (CFS and CPMD)." Magnes Res. 1992;5(1):68.

Clague JE, et al. "Intravenous magnesium loading in chronic fatigue syndrome." Lancet. 1992;340:124-25.

Howard JM, et al. "Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome." Lancet. 1992;340:426.

Cox IM, et al. "Red blodod cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome." Lancet. 1991;337:757-60.

Cox IM, et al. "Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome." Lancet. March 30, 1991;337:757-760.

Gantz NM. "Magnesium and chronic fatigue." Lancet. 1991;338:66.

Magnesium, Fatty Acids, Vitamin B12

Shafran SD, et al. "Chronic fatigue syndrome." Am J Med. June,1991;90:730-740.

Supplement References

Coenzyme Q10

Lapp CW. "Chronic fatigue syndrome is a real disease." N Carolina Fam Phys. 1992;43:6-11.


Achermann JC, Silverman BL. "Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement for patients with adrenal insufficiency." Lancet. May5,2001;357:1381-1382.

Scott LV, et al. "Differences in adrenal steroid profile in chronic fatigue syndrome, in depression and in health." J Affect Disord. 1999;54:129-137.

De Becker P, et al. "Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) response to I.V. ACTH in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome." Horm Metab Res. 1999;31:18-21.

McCoy JL. "Immunomodulatory properties of DHEA as a potential treatment for CFIDS." The CFIDS Chronicle Physicians' Forum. 1993;Fall:21-23.

Adrenal Glandular

Baschetti R. "Cortisol deficiency may account for elevated apoptotic cell population in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome." J Int Med. 1999;245:409-412.

Tinera JW. "The hypoadrenocortical state and its management." NY State Med J. 1955;55:1869-76.


Kelly GS. "L-Carnitine: therapeutic applications of a conditionally-essential amino acid." Altern Med Rev. 1998;Oct;3(5):345-60.

Scholte HR, et al. "Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and children with complex regional pain syndrome have low plasma acylcarnitine. Some of the patients have a defect in the carnitine importer." J Inherit Met Dis. 1998;21(Suppl.2):58/P116.

Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. "Amantadine and L-carnitine treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome." Neuropsychobiol. 1997;35:16-23.

Kuratsune H, et al. "Acylcarnitine and chronic fatigue syndrome." Carnitine Today. 1997;10:195-213.

Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. "Serum levels of carnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical correlates." Neuropsychobiol. 1995;32:132-138.


Forsyth LM, et al. "Therapeutic effects of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome." Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999;Feb;82(2):185-91.


van Heukelom RO, et al. "Influence of melatonin on fatigue severity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and late melatonin secretion." Eur J Neurol. 2006;13(1):55-60.

Botanical References

Centella asiatica

Lawrence Review of Natural Products. Gotu kola. August 1996.

Appa Rao MVR, et al. "The effect of Centella asiatica on the general mental ability of mentally retarded cildren." Indian J Pschy. 1997;19:54-9.

Ginkgo biloba

Funfgeld EW, Ed. Rokan (Ginkgo bilba). Recent Results in Pharmacology and Clinic. Springer-Verlagl NY,NY:1988.

Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. "Ginkgo biloba." Lancet. 1992;340:1136-9.

Eleutherococcus senticosus

Wong AHC, et al. "Herbal remedies in psychiatric practice." Arch Gen Psychiatry. November,1998;55:1033-1044.

Lawrence Review of Natural Products. Eleutherococcus. May 1996.

Bohn B, et al. "Flow-cytometric studies with Eleuthreococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent." Arzneim Forsch. 1987;37:1193-6.

Fucus vesiculosus

Bezamger-Beaquesne L, et al. Plantes Medicinales des Regions Temperees. Maloine ed. 1980.

Urtica urens, Rosmarius officinalis, Zanthoxyllum clava-herculus

Mitchell WA. Plant Medicine. Preparatory Manuscript; Seattle, WA; 2000.

Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine-From the Heart of the Earth. Wise Acres Press, Inc.; Creswell, OR; 1999.

Ogletree RL, Rischer RG. Physician's and Pharmacist's Guide to the Top 10 Scientifically Proven Natural Products. Natural Source Digest; 2nd Ed. Brandon, MS; 1997.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. DK Publishing; New York, NY; 1996.

Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Prima Publishing; Rocklin, CA; 1995.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy; Botanical Vol. II. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Felter HW. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Botanical Vol. 1. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Scalzo R. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas. 3rd Ed. Kivaki Press; Durango, CO; 1994.

Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. Dorling Kindersley; New York, NY; 1993.

Stansbury JE. Botanical Medicines Acting on the Respiratory System. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Stansbury JE. Pharmacognosy for the Herbal Practitioner. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Thomas L. 10 Essential Herbs. Hohm Press; Prescott, AZ; 1992.

Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers LTD; Beaconsfield, England; 1991.

Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Element Inc; Rockport, MA; 1991.

Mabey R, et al. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, NY; 1988. England;1988.

Tyler VE, et al. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. Lea & Febiger; Philadelphia, PA; 1988.

Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; Essex; 1988

Carr A, et al. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale Press; Emmaus, PA; 1987.

Mowrey DB. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Keats Publishing, Inc.; New Canaan, CT; 1986.

Beyer P. The Master Book of Herbalism. Phoenix Publishing; Custer, WA; 1984.

Goodenough J. Dr. Goodenough's Home Cures & Herbal Remedies. Avenel Books; New York, NY; 1982.

Millspaugh CF. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1974.

Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. I & II; Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1971.

Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

Kent JT. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers (P) LTD; New Delhi, India; 1991.

Boericke W. Materia Medica with Repertory, 9th Ed..Boericke & Tafel, Inc.; Santa Rosa, CA; 1927.

Other Treatment References

Antiviral IV

Golan R. Optimal Wellness. Ballantine Books; NY, NY; 1995:351.

Branched Amino Acid IV Therapy

Castell LM, et al. "The role of tryptophan in fatigue in different conditions of stress." Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:697-704.

Gastmann UA, Lehmann MJ. "Overtraining and the BCAA hypothesis." Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;Jul;30(7):1173-8 .

Kingsbury KJ, et al. "Contrasting plasma free amino acid patterns in elite athletes: association with fatigue and infection." Br J Sports Med. 1998;Mar;32(1):25-32; discussion 32-3.

Wagenmakers AJ. "Amino acid metabolism, muscular fatigue and muscle wasting. Speculations on adaptations at high altitude." Int J Sports Med. 1992;Oct;13 Suppl 1:S110-3.

Newsholme EA, et al. "Physical and mental fatigue: metabolic mechanisms and importance of plasma amino acids. " Br Med Bull. 1992;Jul;48(3):477-95.

Candidal Infection

Balch JF, et al. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. Avery Publishing; NY, NY; 1997:136.


Winokur A, et al. "Insulin resistance after glucose tolerance testing in patients with major depression." Am J Psych. 1988;145:325-30.

Reduce Responsibilities

Golan R. Optimal Wellness. Ballantine Books; NY, NY; 1995:352.


Cleare AJ, Wessely SC. "Chronic fatigue syndrome: A stress disorder?" Bri J Hosp Med. 1996;55(9):571-574.


"Chronic fatigue: try yoga, citaloipram, placebo." Fam Prac News. January1,2003:13.

Fulcher KY, WhitePD. "Randomised controlled trial of graded exercise in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome." Bri Med J. June 7, 1997;314:1647-1652.

Vercoulen JH, et al. "Physical activity in chronic fatigue syndrome: assessment and its role in fatigue." J Psych Res. 1997;31(6):661-673.

McCully KK, et al. "Use of exercise for treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome." Sports Med. January,1996;21(1):35-48.

Chemical Sensitivities

Proctor SP, et al. "Chemical sensitivity and chronic fatigue in Gulf War veterans: a brief report." J Occup Environ Med. March,2001;43(3):259-264.

Reid S, et al. "Multiple chemical sensitivity and chronic fatigue syndrome in British Gulf War veterans." Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(6):604-609.

Thyroid Panel

Gold M, et al. "Hypothyroidism and depression. Evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation." JAMA. 1981;245:1919-22.


Winokur A, et al. "Insulin resistance after glucose tolerance testing in patients with major depression." Am J Psychia. 1988;145:325-30.

Wright JH, et al. "Glucose metabolism in unipolar depression." Br J Psychia. 1978;132:386-93.

Adrenal Function

Demitrack MA. "Chronic fatigue syndrome: A disease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis?" Ann Med. 1994;26:1-3.

Tinera JW. "The hypoadrenocortical state and its management." NY State Med J. 1955;55:1869-76.

Food Allergies

Rowe AH, Rowe A. Food Allergy: Its Manifestations and Control and the Elimination Diets: A Compendium. Charles C Thomas. Springfield, IL. 1977.

Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).