Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2)

. Diet and Nutrition References

Food Allergens

Kohno T, et al. "Antibodies to food antigens in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus." Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;55:1-9.

Vaarala O, et al. "Environmental factors in the aetiology of childhood diabetes." Diab Nutr Metab. 1999;12(2):75-85.

Marz RB. Medical Nutrition from Marz, 2nd ed. Omni Press; Portland, OR; 1997:277.

Coffee, Alcohol and Tobacco

van Dam RM, et al. "Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study in younger and middle-aged U.S. women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):398-403.

Smith B, et al. "Does coffee consumption reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose?" Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2385-90.

Hu G, et al. "Joint association of coffee consumption and other factors to the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in Finland." Int J Obes (Lond). Apr25,2006.

Bidel S, et al. "Coffee consumption and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes." Diabetologia. 2006;49(11):2618-26.

Lopez-Garcia E, et al. "Coffee consumption and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in healthy and diabetic women." Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(4):888-93.

Bidel S, et al. "Effects of coffee consumption on glucose tolerance, serum glucose and insulin levels--a cross-sectional analysis." Horm Metab Res. 2006;38(1):38-43.

Tuomilehto J, et al. "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Finnish men and women." JAMA. March10,2004;291(10):1213-1219.

van Dam RM, Feskens EJM. "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus." Lancet. November9,2002;360:1477-1478.

Hu FB, et al. "Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women." N Engl J Med. September13,2001;345(11):790-797.

Biaggioni I, Davis SN. "Caffeine: a cause of insulin resistance?" Diabetes Care. February,2002;25(2):399-400.

"Diabetes and alcohol consumption." Diabetes Care. January,2000;23:18-22.

Franz MJ. "Diabetes mellitus: considerations in the development of guidelines for the ocasional use of alcohol." J Am Diet Assoc. 1983;83:147-52.

Complex Carbohydrates and Fiber

Schulze MB, et al. "Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women." Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:348-356.

Gross LS, et al. "Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment." Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:774-779.

Montonen J, et al. "Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:622-629.

Steffen LM, et al. "Whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass and greater insulin sensitivity among adolescents." Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(3):243-250.

Stevens J, et al. "Dietary fiber intake and glycemic index and incidence of diabetes in African-American and white adults." Diabetes Care. October,2002;25(10):1715-1721.

Fung TT, et al. "Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:535-540.

Toeller M. "Fibre consumption, metabolic effects and prevention of complications in diabetic patients: epidemiological evidence." Digest Liver Dis. 2002;34(Suppl 2):S145-S149.

Jenkins AL, et al. "Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:622-628.

Qureshi AA, et al. "Effects of stabilized rice bran, its soluble and fiber fractions on blood glucose levels and serum lipid parameters in humans with diabetes mellitus types I and II." J Nutr Biochem. 2002;13:175-187.

Liu S. "Intake of refined carbohydrates and whole grain foods in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease." J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(4):298-306.

McKeown NM, et al. "Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:390-398.

Meyer KA, et al. "Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women." Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:921-930.

Anderson JW, et al. "Whole grain foods and heart disease risk." J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(3):291S-299S.

Chandalia M, et al. "Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus." N Engl J Med. May11,2000;342(19):1392-1398.

Hallfrisch J, Behall KM. "Mechanisms of the effects of grains on insulin and glucose responses." J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(3):320S-325S.

Noriega E, et al. "Glycaemic and insulinaemic indices of mexican foods high in complex carbohydrates." Diab Nutr Metab. 1999;12:1-22.

Gin H, et al. "Which diet for diabetic patients with chronic renal failure?" Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14:2577-2579.

Gutierrez M, et al. "Utility of a short-term 25% carbohydrate diet on improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus." J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):595-600.

"Diabetes and vegan diet." Nutr Report. May2,1997;27(17):7.


Jenkins DJA, et al. "Too much sugar, too much carbohydrate, or just too much?" Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:711-712.

Strasburger VC. "Children and TV advertising: nowhere to run. Nowhere to hide." Dev Behav Pediatr. June,2001;22(3):185-187.

Tucker ME. "Diet, exercise cut type 2 diabetes risk by 58%: multicenter, 3-year study showed a drop of 31% for patients taking metformin" Fam Prac News. September1,2001:1-4.

National Research Council. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. National Academy Press; Washington, DC; 1989.

Glycemic Index

Schulze MB, et al. "Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women." Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:348-356.

Brand-Miller J, et al. "Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." Diabetes Care. August,2003;26(8):2261-2267.

Wagner EH, et al. "Effect of improved glycemic control on health care costs and utilization." JAMA. January10,2001;285(2):182-189.

Tuomilehto J, et al. "Prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance." N Engl J Med. May3,2001;344(18):1343-1350.

Jenkins DJA, et al. "Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange." Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;24:362-66.


Jenkins DJA, et al. "Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet." Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(Suppl):610S-616S.

Anderson JW, et al. "Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry bean and soybean intake." Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(Suppl.):464S-474S.

Fraser GE. "Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-hispanic white California Seventh-Day Adventists." Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(Suppl.):532S-538S.

Simpson HCR, et al. "A high carbohydrate leguminous fiber diet improves all aspects of diabetic contol." Lancet. 1981;1:1-5.

Junk Food

Montonen J, et al. "Food consumption and the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(3):441-8.

Frazao E. "High costs of poor eating patterns in the United States." Nutr Week. June18,1999;29(23):4-5.

Protein Snacks and Almonds

Gannon MC, et al. "An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:734-741.

Lovejoy JC, et al. "Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1000-1006.

Jiang R, et al. "Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women." JAMA. November27,2002;288(20):2554-2560.

Nuttall FQ, Chasuk RM. "Nutrition and the management of type 2 diabetes." J Fam Prac. 1998;47(5/Suppl):S45-S53.

Raal FJ, et al. "Effect of moderate dietary protein restriction on the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy: a 6-month prospective study." Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:579-585.


Muhammad SA, et al. "Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts." Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;561(1-3):32-8.

Morelli V, Zoorob RJ. "Alternative therapies: part I. depression, diabetes, obesity." Am Fam Physician. September1,2000;62(5):1051-1060.

Sheela CG, et al. "Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic." Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30:523-26.

Olive Oil

Madigan C, et al. "Dietary unsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes: higher levels of postprandial lipoprotein on a linoleic acid-rich sunflower oil diet compared with an oleic acid-rich olive oil diet." Diabetes Care. October,2000;23(10):1472-1477.

Green Tea

Fukino Y, et al. "Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities." Eur J Clin Nutr. Jun6,2007.

Anandh Babu P, et al. "Green tea extract impedes dyslipidaemia and development of cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33(12):1184-9.

Wolfram S, et al. "Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents." The J Nutr. 2006;136(10):2512-2518.

Iso H, et al. "The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intake and risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults." Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(8):554-62.


Hlebowicz J, et al. "Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects." Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(6):1552-6.

Mang B, et al. "Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2." Eur J Clin Invest. 2006;36(5):340-4.

Preuss HG, et al. "Whole cinnamon and aqueous extracts ameliorate sucrose-induced blood pressure elevations in spontaneously hypertensive rats." J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(2):144-150.

Vitamin and Mineral References

Vitamin B

Arora S, et al. "Thiamine (vitamin B1) improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the presence of hyperglycemia." Ann Vasc Surg. 2006;20(5):653-8.

Alzahrani AS, et al. "Thiamine transporter mutation: an example of monogenic diabetes mellitus." Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;155(6):787-792.

Vitamin B3 and Nicotinamide

Emergency Med. "Niacin for dyslipidemia in diabetes: not such a bad idea?" July 2001:12-18.

Elam MB, et al. "Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease. The Admit Study: a randomized trial." JAMA. September13,2000;284(10):1263-1270.

Knip M, et al. "Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review." Diabetologia. 2000;43:1337-1345.

Pozzilli P, et al. "Vitamin E and nicotinamide have similar effects in maintaining residual beta cell function in recent onset insulin-dependent diabetes (the IMDIAB IV study)." Eur J Endocrinol. 1997;137:234-239.

Pozzilli B, et al. "Diabetes and nicotinamide." Nutr Rep. September1995;59.

Pocoit F, et al. "Nicotinamide: biological actions and therapeutic potential in diabetes prevention." Diabetologia. 1993;36:574-76.

Vitamin B6

Ford ES. "Vitamin supplement use and diabetes mellitus incidence among adults in the united states." Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(9):892-897.

Rogers KS, Mohan C. "Vitamin B6 metabolism and diabetes." Biochem Med Metabiol Biol. 1994;52:10-17.


Ceriello A, et al. "Simultaneous control of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress normalizes endothelial function in type 1 diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2007;30(3):649-654.

Costacou T, et al. "Antioxidants and coronary artery disease among individuals with type 1 diabetes: Findings from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study." J Diabetes Complications. 2006;20(6):387-94.

Montonen J, et al. "Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care. February,2004;27(2):362-366.

Millen AE, et al. "Relation between intake of vitamins C and E and risk of diabetic retinopathy in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study." Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:865-873.

Regensteiner JG, et al. "Oral l-arginine and vitamins E and C improve endothelial function in women with type 2 diabetes." Vasc Med. 2003;8:169-175.

Millen AE, et al. "Relations of serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol to diabetic retinopathy in the third national health and nutrition examination survey." Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(3):225-233.

Gaede P, et al. "Double-blind, randomised study of the effect of combined treatment with vitamin C and E on albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients." Diabet Med. 2001;18:756-760.

Kesavulu MM, et al. "Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in type 2 diabetics with microvascular complications." Diabetes Metab (Paris). 2000;26:387-392.

Ruhe RC, McDonald RB. "Use of antioxidant nutrients in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes." J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(5):363S-369S.

Valabhji J, et al. "Total antioxidant status and coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes." Diabetes Care. September,2001;24(9):1608-1613.

Jang Y, et al. "Differences in body fat distribution and antioxidant status in Korean men with cardiovascular disease with or without diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:68-74.

Laight DW, et al. "Antioxidants, diabetes and endothelial dysfunction." Cardiovasc Res. 2000;47:457-464.

Chowienczyk PJ, et al. "Oral treatment with an antioxidant (Raxofelast) reduces oxidative stress and improves endothelial function in men with Type II diabetes." Diabetologia. 2000;43:974-977.

Upritchard JE, at al. "Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C on LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care. June,2000;23(6):733-738.

Anderson JW, et al. "Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus." J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(5):451-461

Muchova J, et al. "Antioxidant systems in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of type 2 diabetes mellitus." Diabet Med. 1999;16:74-78.

Ashour M, et al. "Antioxidant status and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)." J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1999;26:99-107.

Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. "Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications: a new erspective on an old paradigm." Diabetes. January,1999;48:1-9.

Ford ES, et al. "Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids: findings from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey." Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(2):168-176.

Ruiz C, et al. "Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus." Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1999;59:99-106.

Inouye M, et al. "Link between glycation and lipoxidation in red blood cells in diabetes." Clin Chim Acta. 1999;285:35-44.

Reunanen A, et al. "Serum antioxidants and risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus." Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:89-93.

Hirsch IB. "Ascorbic acid clearance in diabetic nephropathy." J Diab Complications. 1998;12(5):259-263.

Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. "Antioxidant nutrient intake and diabetic retinopathy: The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study." Ophthalmol. 1998;105:2264-2270.

Rocic B, et al. "Total plasma antioxidants in first-degree relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes." Exper Clin Endocrinol Diab. 1997;105:213-217.

Challem J. "Antioxidants might ease diabetic complications." Med Trib. December12,1996;18.

Crary EJ. "Antioxidant treatment of macular degeneration of the aging and macular edema in diabetic retinopathy." South Med J. 1987;80(9/suppl.3):38.

Vitamin C

Krone CA, Ely JTA. "Ascorbic acid, glycation, glycohemoglobin and aging." Med Hypoth. 2004;62:275-279.

Zhang C, et al. "Vitamin C and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study." J Reprod Med. April,2004;49(4):257-266.

Vincent TE, et al. "Inhibition of aldose reductase in human erythrocytes by vitamin C." Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1999;43:1-8.

McAuliffe AV, et al. "Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (Tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion." Nephron. 1998;80:277-284.

Cunningham JJ. "The glucose/insulin system and vitamin C: implications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(2):105-108.

Klenner FR. "Observations on the dose and administration of ascorbic acid when employed beyond the range of a vitamin in human pathology." J Orthomol Med. 1998;13(4):198-210.

Vitamin D

Pittas AG, Lau J. "The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis." J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(6):2017-29.

Martins D, et al. "Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey." Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(11):1159-65.

Suzuki A, et al. "Hypovitaminosis D in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Association with microvascular complications and type of treatment." Endocr J. 2006;53(4):503-10.

Pittas AG, et al. "Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):650-6.

Elder GJ, Mackun K. "25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and diabetes predict reduced BMD in patients with chronic kidney disease." J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21(11):1778-84.

Holick MF. "High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health." Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(3):353-73.

Targher G, et al. "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and carotid artery intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients." Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65(5):593-597.

Liu S, et al. "Dietary calcium, vitamin D, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women." Diabetes Care. 2005;28(12):2926-2932.

Pozzilli P, et al. "Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes." Hormone Metabol Res. 2005;37(11):680-683.

Vitamin E

Giannini C, et al. "Effects of high-dose vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress and microalbuminuria in young adult patients with childhood onset type 1 diabetes mellitus." Diabetes Metab Res Rev. Feb1,2007.

Ylonen K, et al. "Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the Botnia Dietary Study." Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1434-1441.

Ruffini I, et al. "Evaluation of the local effects of vitamin E (E-mousse ) on free radicals in diabetic microangiopathy: a randomized, controlled trial." Angiology. 2003;54(4):415-421.

Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. "Plasma and dietary vitamin E in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance and atherosclerosis study (IRAS)." Diabetes Care. December,2002;25(12):2172-2177.

Park S, Choi SB. "Effects of -tocopherol supplementation and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on oxidative stress in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:728-733.

Manzella D, et al. "Chronic administration of pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improves the cardiac autonomic nervous system in patients with type 2 diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1052-1057.

Skyrme-Jones RAP, et al. "Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in Type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study." J Am Coll Cardiol. July,2000;36(1):94-102.

Polidori MC, et al. "Plasma levels of lipophilic antioxidants in very old patients with type 2 diabetes." Diabetes/Metab Res Rev. 2000;16:15-19.

Skyrme-Jones RAP, et al. "Endothelial vasodilator function is related to low-density lipoprotein particle size and low-density lipoprotein vitamin E content in type 1 diabetes." J Am Coll Cardiol. February,2000;35(2):292-299.

Andrew R, et al. "Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study." J Am Coll Cardiol. July,2000;36(1):94-102.

Engelen W, et al. "Effect of long-term supplementation with moderate pharmacologic doses of vitamin E are saturable and reversible in patients with type 1 diabetes." Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:1142-1149.

Knekt P, et al. "Low vitamin E status is a potential risk factor for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." J Int Med. 1999;245:99-102.

Tutuncu NB, et al. "The effect of vitamin E supplementation on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in diabetic patients." Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 1999;20:201-207.

Rosen P, Toeller M. "Vitamin E in diabetes: increased oxidative stress and its prevention as a strategy to prevent vascular complications?" Intl J Vit Nutr Res. 1999;69(3):206-212.

Bursell S-E, et al. "High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes." Diabetes Care. 1999;22:1245-1251.

Jain SK. "Should high-dose vitamin E supplementation be recommended to diabetic patients?" Diabetes Care. August,1999;22(8):1242-1244.

Rosen P, et al. "Role of oxygen derived radicals for vascular dysfunction in the diabetic heart: prevention by alpha-tocopherol?" Mol Cell Biochem. 1998;188:103-111.

Lehr HA, et al. "Vitamin E: focus on microcirculation." Microcirc. 1998;5:117-128.

Jain SK, et al. "Relationship of blood thromboxane-B2 (TXB2) with lipid peroxides and effect of vitamin E and placebo supplementation on TBX2 and lipid peroxide levels in type I diabetic patients." Diabetes Care. September,1998;21(9):1511-1516.

Fryer MJ, "Vitamin E may slow kidney failure owing to oxidative stress." Redox Rep. 1997;3(5/6):259-261.

Gazis A, et al. "Vitamin E and cardiovascular protection in diabetes: antioxidants may offer particular advantage in this high risk group." Br Med J. June28,1997;314:1845-1846.

Gerstein HC, et al. "Rationale and design of a large study to evaluate the renal and cardiovascular effects of an ACE inhibitor and vitamin E in high-risk patients with diabetes." Diab Care. November,1996;19(11):1225-1228.

Jain SK, et al. "Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in type I diabetic patients." J Am Col Nutr. 1996;15(5):458-461.

Gisinger C, et al. "Vitamin E and platelet eicosanoids in diabetes mellitus." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1990;40:169-176.


Head KA. "Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies." Altern Med Rev. 2006;11(4):294-329.

Maebashi N, et al. "Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in ipatients with non-insulin depedent diabetes mellitus." J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1993;14:211-18.


Pei D, et al. "The influence of chromium chloride-containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Metabolism. 2006;55(7):923-7.

Singer GM, Geohas J. "The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial." Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006,8(6):636-643.

Martin J, et al. "Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(8):1826-32.

Racek J, et al. "Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006;109(3):215-30.

Bahijri SMA, Mufti AMB. "Beneficial effects of chromium in people with type 2 diabetes, and urinary chromium response to glucose load as a possible indicator of status." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2002;85:97-109.

Althuis MD, et al. "Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:148-155.

Anderson R. "Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes." Diabetes and Metabolism (Paris). 2000;26(1):22-27.

Kuritzky L, et al. "Improving management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: 6. chromium." Hospital Practice. February15,2000:113-116.

Wrobel K, et al. "Effect of chromium on glucose tolerance, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in occupational exposure to trivalent species in type 2 diabetic patients and in control subjects." Trace Elements and Electrolytes. 1999;16(4):199-205.

Cefalu WT, et al. "Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo." J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1999;12:71-83.

Lukaski HC. "Chromium as a supplement." Ann Rev Nutr. 1999;19:279-302.

Ravina A, et al. "Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium." Diab Med. 1999;16:164-167.

Anderson RA. "Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes." J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):548-555.

Cunningham JJ. "Micronutrients as nutraceutical interventions in diabetes mellitus." J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(1):7-10.

Ding W, et al. "Serum and urine chromium concentrations in elderly diabetics." Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998;63:231-237.

Hellerstein MK. "Is chromium supplementation effective in managing type II diabetes?" Nutr Rev. 1998;56(10):302-306.

Mertz W. "Chromium research from a distance: from 1959 to 1980." J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(6):544-547.

Anderson RA. "Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium." J Am Col Nutr. 1997;16(5):404-410.

Anderson RA, et al. "Beneficial effect of chromium for people with type II diabetes." Diabetes. 1996;45(Suppl.2):124A/454.


Kadhim HM, et al. "Effects of melatonin and zinc on lipid profile and renal function in type 2 diabetic patients poorly controlled with metformin." J Pineal Res. 2006;41(2):189-193.

Roussel A-M, et al. "Antioxidant effects of zinc supplementation in Tunisians with type 2 diabetes mellitus." J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(4):316-321.

Salgueiro MJ, et al. "Zinc and diabetes mellitus: is there a need of zinc supplementation in diabetes mellitus patients?" Biol Trace Elem Res. 2001;81:215-228.

Anderson RA, et al. "Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus." J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(3):212-218.

Marchesini G, et al. "Zinc supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with cirrhosis." Metabolism. July,1998;47(7):792-798.

Malizia R, et al. "Zinc deficiency and cell-mediated and humoral autoimmunity of insulin-dependent diabetes in thalassemic subjects." J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1998;11:981-984.

Singh RB, et al. "Current zinc intake and risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and factors associated with insulin resistance in rural and urban populations of north India." J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(6):564-570.

Haglund B, et al. "Evidence of a relationship between childhood-onset type I diabetes and low groundwater concentration of zinc." Diabetes Care. August,1996;19(8):873-875.

Niewoehner CB, et al. "Role of zinc supplementation in type II diabetes mellitus." Am J Med. July,1986;81(1):63-68.


Ruiz C, et al. "Selenium, zinc and copper in plasma of patients with type I diabetes mellitus in different metabolic control states." J Trace Elements Med Biol. 1998;12:91-95.

Klevay LM, et al. "Diminished glucose tolerance in tow men due to a diet low in copper." Am J Clin Nutr. 1983:37:717.


Rumawas ME, et al. "Magnesium intake is related to improved insulin homeostasis in the Framingham Offspring Cohort." J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(6):486-92.

van Dam RM, et al. "Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. Black women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(10):2238-43.

Corica F, et al. "Serum ionized magnesium levels in relation to metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients." J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(3):210-5.

Bo S, et al. "Dietary magnesium and fiber intakes and inflammatory and metabolic indicators in middle-aged subjects from a population-based cohort." Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(5):1062-9.

Soltani N, et al. "Effects of administration of oral magnesium on plasma glucose and pathological changes in the aorta and pancreas of diabetic rats." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32(8):604-10.

Lopez-Ridaura R, et al. "Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women." Diabetes Care. January,2004;27(1):134-140.

Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. "Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial." Diabetes Care. April,2003;26(4):1147-1152.

Takaya J, et al. "Intracellular magnesium of platelets in children with diabetes and obesity." Metabolism. April,2003;52(4):468-471.

Walti MK, et al. "Low plasma magnesium in type 2 diabetes." Swiss Med Wkly. 2003;133:289-292.

Fox C, et al. "Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance." South Med J. December,2001;94(12):1195-1201.

Kisters K, et al. "Magnesium deficiency and increased fractional magnesium excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - magnesium loading test and blood pressure." Trace Elem Electrolytes. 2000;17(2):67-70.

Corsonello A, et al. "Serum ionized magnesium levels in Type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or clinical proteinuria." Am J Nephrol. 2000;20:187-192.

de Valk HW. "Magnesium in diabetes mellitus." Netherlands J Med. 1999;54:139-146.

Yang C-Y, et al. "Magnesium in drinking water and the risk of death from diabetes mellitus." Magnes Res. 1999;12(2):131-137.

Worwag M, et al. "Prevalence of magnesium and zinc deficiencies in nursing home residents in Germany." Magnes Res. 1999;12(3):181-189.

Khan LA, et al. "Serum and urinary magnesium in young diabetic subjects in Bangladesh." Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:70-73.

Kao WHL, et al. "Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study." Arch Intern Med. October11,1999;159:2151-2159.

Khalil SI. "Magnesium, the forgotten cation." Intl J Cardiol. 1999;68:133-135.

de Lourdes LM, et al. "The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes." Diab Care. May,1998;21(5):682-686.

Kobayashi T, et al. "Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels are correlated with oxygen uptake in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus." Endocr J. 1998;45(2):277-283.

Bauer AEW, Rob PM. "Diabetic nephropathy and magnesium: an approach." Trace Elem Elect. 1998;15(4):163-167.

Tuvemo T, et al. "Serum magnesium and protein concentrations during the first five years of insulin-dependent diabetes in children." Acta Pediatrica. 1997;Suppl.418:7-10.

Tosiello L. "Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus." Arch Int Med. June10,1996;156:1143-1148.

Purvis JR, Movahed A. "Magnesium disorders and cardiovascular diseases." Clin Cardiol. August,1992;15:556-568.


Pittas AG, Lau J. "The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis." J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(6):2017-29.

Pittas AG, et al. "Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):650-6.

van Dam RM, et al. "Dietary calcium and magnesium, major food sources, and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. Black women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(10):2238-43.

Liu S, et al. "Dietary calcium, vitamin D, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older U.S. women." Diabetes Care. 2005;28(12):2926-2932.


Wimhurst JM, et al. "Comparison of the ability of Mg an Mn to activate the key enzymes of glycolosis." FEBS Letters. 1972;27:321-26.


Heiderman JH, et al. "Prevention of glucose intolerance of thiazide diuretics by maintenance of body potassium." Diabetes. 1983;32:106.


Cusi K, et al. "Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes." J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(3):1410-1417.

Badmaev V, et al. "Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes." J Altern Complement Med. 1999;5(3):273-291.

Verma S, et al. "Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium," J Am Col Nutr. 1998;17(1):11-18.

Supplement References


Cody V, et al. Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structure-Activity Relationships. Alan R. Liss; NY, NY; 1986.

Coenzyme Q10

Hasegawa G, et al. "Daily profile of plasma % CoQ10 level, a biomarker of oxidative stress, in patients with diabetes manifesting postprandial hyperglycaemia." Acta Diabetol. 2005;42(4):179-81.

Liou C-W, et al. "Correction of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction with coenzyme Q10 in a patient with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome and diabetes mellitus." Eur Nurol. 2000;43:54-55.

Kishi T, et al. "Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. XI. Studies on coenzyme Q and diabetes mellitus." J Med. 1976;7:307.


Franconi F, Loizzo A. "Taurine supplementation and diabetes mellitus." Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9(1):32-6.

Franconi F. "Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation." Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:1115-9.


Regensteiner JG, et al. "Oral l-arginine and vitamins E and C improve endothelial function in women with type 2 diabetes." Vasc Med. 2003;8:169-175.

Huynh NT, Tayek JA. "Oral arginine reduces systemic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: its potential role in nitric oxide generation." J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(5):422-427.

Huynh NT, Tayek JA. "Oral arginine reduces systemic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: its potential role in nitric oxide generation." J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(5):422-427.

Piatti PM, et al. "Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients." Diabetes Care. May 2001;24(5):875-880.

Lipoic Acid

Foster TS. "Efficacy and safety of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic neuropathy." Diabetes Educ. 2007;33(1):111-7.

Kojima M, et al. "Efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid against diabetic cataract in rat." Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2007;51(1):10-3.

Chang JW, et al. "Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on the plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study." Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(1):70-74.

Pitel S, et al. "At low doses, a gamma-linolenic acid-lipoic acid conjugate is more effective than docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids in preventing neuropathy in diabetic rats." J Nutr. 2007;137(2):368-372.

Kamenova P. "Improvement of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid." Hormones (Athens). 2006;5(4):251-8.

Yi X, Maeda N. "Alpha-lipoic acid prevents the increase in atherosclerosis induced by diabetes in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed high-fat/low-cholesterol Diet." Diabetes. 2006;55(8):2238-44.

Ziegler D, et al. "Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2365-70.

Morcos M, et al. "Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the progression of endothelial cell damage and albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: an exploratory study." Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001;52:175-183.

Coleman MD, et al. "The therapeutic use of lipoic acid in diabetes: a current perspective." Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;10:167-172.

Walsh N. "Alpha-lipoic acid for diabetic neuropathy." Fam Prac News. April1,2001:22.

Stevens MJ, et al. "Effects of DL-Alpha-lipoic acid on peripheral nerve conduction, blood flow, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic neuropathy." Diabetes. June,2000;49:1006-1015.

Ziegler D, et al. "A-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials." Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107:421-430.

Konrad T, et al. "Alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes." Diab Care, February,1999;22(2):280-287.

Wiznitzer A, et al. "Lipoic acid prevention of neural tube defects in offspring of rats with Streptozocin-induced diabetes." Am J Obstet Gynecol. January,1999;180(1Part 1):188-193.

Essential Fatty Acids

Noto A, et al. "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid preserves pancreatic function and reduces inflammatory markers in obese, insulin-resistant rats." Metabolism. 2007;56(1):142-51.

Djousse L, et al. "Dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose and insulin: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study." Obesity. 2006;14(2):295-300.

Ouguerram K, et al. "Effect of n-3 fatty acids on metabolism of apoB100-containing lipoprotein in type 2 diabetic subjects." Br J Nutr. 2006;96(1):100-6.

Zeman M, et al. "N-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine in diabetic dyslipidemia treated with statin-fibrate combination." J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17(6):379-384.

Hu FB, et al. "Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women." Circulation. April15,2003;107:1852-1857.

Woodman RJ, et al. "Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension." Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1007-1015.

Christensen JH, et al. "Heart rate variability and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with diabetes mellitus." J Intern Med. 2001;249:545-552.

Simopoulos AP. "Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease." Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(Suppl.):560S-569S.

Dunstan DW, et al. "A randomised, controlled study of the effects of aerobic exercise and dietary fish on coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in type 2 diabetics." Thromb Haemost. 1999;81:367-372.

Patti L, et al. "Long-term effects of fish oil on lipoprotein subfractions and low density lipoprotein size in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia." Atherosclerosis. 1999;146:361-367.

Yosefy C, et al. "The effect of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids and hemostasis in hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic patients with and without diabetes mellitus." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999;61(2):83-87.

Patti L, et al. "Long-term effects of fish oil on lipoprotein subfractions and low density lipoprotein size in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia." Atherosclerosis. 1999;146:361-367.

Friedberg C, et al. "Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes." Diab Care. April,1998;21(4):494-500.

Leaf A, Kang JX. "Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease." World Rev Nutr Diet. 1998;83:24-37.

Fan YY, Chapkin RS. "Importance of dietary gamma-linolenic acid in human health and nutrition." J Nutr. 1998;128:1411-1414.

Horrobin DF. "Omega-6 fatty acids and nervous system disorders." Med Fatty Acids Inflam. 1998:65-71.

Nishikawa M, et al. "Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on prostacyclin production in diabetics: GC/MS analysis of PG12 and PGI3 levels." Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1997;19(6):429-433.

Simopoulos AP. "Omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and trans fatty acids in non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus." Ann NY Acad Sci. September20,1997;827:327-338.

Axelrod L. "Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM." Diabetes Care. 1994;17:37-45.

Simopoulos AP. "Is insulin resistance influenced by dietary linoleic acid and trans fatty acids." Free Rad Biol Med. 1994;17(4):367-372.


Power RA, et al. "Carnitine revisited: potential use as adjunctive treatment in diabetes." Diabetologia. 2007;50(4):824-832.

Poorabbas A, et al. "Determination of free L-carnitine levels in type II diabetic women with and without complications." Eur J Clin Nutr. Feb21,2007.

Solfrizzi V, et al. "Efficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with L-carnitine and simvastatin in lowering lipoprotein(a) serum levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus." Atherosclerosis. 2006;188(2):455-1.


Qi L, et al. "Dietary fibers and glycemic load, obesity, and plasma adiponectin levels in women with type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(7):1501-5.

Zhang C, et al. "Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(10):2223-30.

Weickert MO, et al. "Cereal fiber improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(4):775-80.

Qi L, et al. "Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women." Diabetes Care. 2006;29(2):207-11.

Ma Y, et al. "Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein." Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):760-6.

Ziai SA, et al. "Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients." J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;102(2):202-7.

Bakker SJL, et al. "The association of dietary fibers with glucose tolerance is partly explained by concomitant intake of thiamine: The Hoorn Study." Diabetologia. 1998;41:1168-1175.

Digestive Enzymes

Balch JF, et al. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. Avery Publishing; NY, NY; 1997:230.

Botanical References

Gymnema sylvestre

Walsh N. "Asian herb for diabetes to be tested in clinical trial." Family Practice News. April1,2001:22.

Baskaran K, et al. "Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients." J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;30:295-305.

Vaccinium myrtillus

Caselli L. "Clinical and electroretinographic study on activity of anthocyanosides." Arch Med Int. 1985;37:29-35.1990;30:295-305.

Trigonella foenum graecum

Mozersky RP. "Herbal products and supplemental nutrients used in the management of diabetes." JAOA. December,1999;99(Suppl 12):S4-S9.

Sharma RD, et al. "Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes." Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990;44:301-6.1990;30:295-305.

Oplopanax horridum

Vuksan V, et al. "American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius l) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus." Arch Intern Med. April 10,2000;160:1009-1013.

Vogler BK, et al. "The efficacy of ginseng. a systematic review of randomized clinical trials." Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;55:567-575.

Centella asiatica

Incandela L, et al. "Treatment of diabetic microangiopathy and edema with total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled randomized study." Angiology. 2001;52(Suppl. 2):S27-S31.

Cesarone MR, et al. "Evaluation of treatment of diabetic microangiopathy with total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica: a clinical prospective randomized trial with a microcirculatory model." Angiology. 2001;52(Suppl. 2):S49-S54.

Curcuma Longa

Kowluru RA, Kanwar M. "Effects of curcumin on retinal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes." Nutr Metab (London). 2007;16(4):8.

Murugan P, Pari L. "Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-nicotinamide experimental diabetes." Life Sci. 2006;79(18):1720-1728.

Sharma S, et al. "Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33(10):940-5.

Jain SK, et al. "Effect of curcumin on protein glycosylation, lipid peroxidation, and oxygen radical generation in human red blood cells exposed to high glucose levels." Free Radical Biol Med. 2006;41(1):92-96.

Taraxacum officinale

Mitchell WA. Plant Medicine. Preparatory Manuscript; Seattle, WA; 2000.

Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine-From the Heart of the Earth. Wise Acres Press, Inc.; Creswell, OR; 1999.

Ogletree RL, Rischer RG. Physician's and Pharmacist's Guide to the Top 10 Scientifically Proven Natural Products. Natural Source Digest; 2nd Ed. Brandon, MS; 1997.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. DK Publishing; New York, NY; 1996.

Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Prima Publishing; Rocklin, CA; 1995.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy; Botanical Vol. II. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Felter HW. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Botanical Vol. 1. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Scalzo R. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas. 3rd Ed. Kivaki Press; Durango, CO; 1994.

Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. Dorling Kindersley; New York, NY; 1993.

Stansbury JE. Botanical Medicines Acting on the Respiratory System. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Stansbury JE. Pharmacognosy for the Herbal Practitioner. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Thomas L. 10 Essential Herbs. Hohm Press; Prescott, AZ; 1992.

Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers LTD; Beaconsfield, England; 1991.

Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Element Inc; Rockport, MA; 1991.

Mabey R, et al. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, NY; 1988. England;1988.

Tyler VE, et al. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. Lea & Febiger; Philadelphia, PA; 1988.

Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; Essex; 1988

Carr A, et al. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale Press; Emmaus, PA; 1987.

Mowrey DB. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Keats Publishing, Inc.; New Canaan, CT; 1986.

Beyer P. The Master Book of Herbalism. Phoenix Publishing; Custer, WA; 1984.

Goodenough J. Dr. Goodenough's Home Cures & Herbal Remedies. Avenel Books; New York, NY; 1982.

Millspaugh CF. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1974.

Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. I & II; Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1971.

Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

Kent JT. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers (P) LTD; New Delhi, India; 1991.

Boericke W. Materia Medica with Repertory, 9th Ed..Boericke & Tafel, Inc.; Santa Rosa, CA; 1927.

Other Treatment References


Roberts CK, et al. "Effect of a diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation and monocyte adhesion in diabetic men." Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006;73(3):249-59.

Trichopoulou A, et al. "Diet and physical activity in relation to overall mortality amongst adult diabetics in a general population cohort." J Intern Med. 2006;259(6):583-91.

Cuff DJ, et al. "Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care. November,2003;26(11):2977-2982.

Hu FB, et al. "Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women." JAMA. April9,2003;289(14):1785-1791.

Grylls WK, et al. "Lifestyle factors associated with glycaemic control and body mass index in older adults with diabetes." Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:1386-1393.

Dunstan DW, et al. "High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes." Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1729-1736.

Pigman HT, et al. "Role of exercise for type 2 diabetic patient management." South Med J. January,2002;95(1):72-77.

Boule NG, et al. "Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials." JAMA. September12,2001;286(10):1218-1227.

Hu FB, et al. "Physical activity and risk for cardiovascular events in diabetic women." Ann Intern Med. January16,2001;134(2):96-105.

Fritz T, Rosenqvist U. "Walking for exercise - immediate effect on blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes." Scand J Prim Health Care. 2001;19:31-33.

Wei M, et al. "Low cardiorespiratory fitness and physical inactivity as predictors of mortality in men with type 2 diabetes." Ann Intern Med. April18,2000;132(8):605-611.

Kriska A. "Physical activity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: how much for how long?" Sports Med. March. 2000;29(3):147-151.

Borghouts LB, Keizer HA. "Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review." Int J Sports Med. 2000;21:1-12.

Shahady EJ. "Exercise as medication: how to motivate your patients." Consultant. November,2000:2174-2178.

Wei M, et al. "Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men." JAMA. October27,1999;282(16):1547-1553.

Sothern MS, et al. "The health benefits of physical activity in children and adolescents: implications for chronic disease prevention." Eur J Pediatr. 1999;158:271-274.

DiNubile NA, Sherman C. "Exercise and the bottom line: promoting physical and fiscal fitness in the workplace: a commentary." Phys Sportsmed. February,1999;27(2):37-43.

Takemura Y, et al. "The protective effect of good physical fitness when young on the risk of impaired glucose tolerance when old." Prev Med. 1999;28:14-19.

Eriksson JG. "Exercise and the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an update." Sports Med. June,1999;27(6):381-391.

Wylie-Rosett J. "Efficacy of diet and exercise in reducing body weight and conversion to overt diabetes." Diab Care. March,1998;21(3):334-335.

Mosher PE, et al. "Aerobic circuit exercise training: effect on adolescents with well-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." Arch Phys Med Rehab. June,1998;79:652-657.

Goodyear LJ, Kahn BB. "Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity." Annual Rev Med. 1998;49:235-261.

Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. "Intensity and amount of physical activity in relation to insulin sensitivity: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study." JAMA. March4,1998;279(9):669-674.

Ivy JL. "Role of exercise training in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." Sports Med. November,1997;24(5):321-336.

Paffenbarger RS, et al. "Physical activity in the prevention of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus." World Rev Nutr Diet. 1997;82:210-218.

Tuominen JA, et al. "Exercise increases insulin clearance in healthy man and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients." Clin Phys. 1997;17:19-30.

Nugent CA. "Exercise decreases the risk of development of diabetes mellitus." Arch Int Med. 1996.

Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).