Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for Gallstone Disease

. Diet and Nutrition References

Food Allergies

Sicherer SH. "Manifestations of food allergy: evaluation and management." Am Fam Physician. January15,1999;59(2):415-424.

Breneman JC. "Allergy elimination diet as the most effective gallbladder diet." Ann Allergy. February,1968;26:83-87.

Necheles H, et al. "Allergy of the gallbladder: a study using the Graham-Cole test and the leukopenic index." Am J Dig Dis. 1940;7:238.

Sugar, Refined Carbohydrates

Moerman CJ, et al. "Dietary risk factors for clinically diagnosed gallstones in middle-aged men: a 25-year follow-up study (the Zutphen study)." Ann Epidemiol. 1994;248-254.

Thornton JR, et al. "Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism." Gut. 1983;24:2-6.

Vegan Diet

Tsai C-J, et al. "Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women." Am J Med. 2006;119(9):760-7.

Animal Fats

Misciagna G, et al. "Diet, physical activity, and gallstones - a population-based, case-control study in southern Italy." Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:120-126.

Key TJ, et al. "Health benefits of a vegetarian diet." Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:271-275.

Kern F. "Effects of dietary cholesterol on cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis in patients with cholesterol gallstones." Jr. J Clin Invest. 1994;93:1186-1194.

Nair P, Mayberry JF. "Vegetarianism, dietary fibre and gastro-intestinal disease." Dig Dis. May-June,1994;12(3):177-185.

Maclure KM, et al. "Dietary predictors of symptom-associated gallstones in middle-aged women." Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:916-922.

Lee DWT, et al. "Effect of dietary cholesterol on biliary lipids in patients with gallstones and normal subjects." Am J Clin Nutr. September,1985;42:414-420.

Pixley F, et al. "Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women." BMJ. July6,1985;291:11-12.

Morrison LM. "The effects of a low fat diet on the incidence of gallbladder disease." Am J Gastroenterol. 1956;25:158-163.

Fried Foods and Trans-Fatty Acids

Tsai C-J, et al. "Long-term intake of trans-fatty acids and risk of gallstone disease in men." Arch Intern Med. May9,2005;165:1011-1015.

Fiber, Bowel Transit Time

Moran S, et al. "Effects of fiber administration in the prevention of gallstones in obese patients on a reducing diet. a clinical trial." Rev Gastroenterol Mex. October-December,1997;62(4):266-272.

Trautwein EA, et al. "Modeling plasma lipoprotein-bile lipid relationships: differential impact of psyllium and cholestyramine in hamsters fed a lithogenic diet." Metabolism. December,1993;42(12):1531-1540.

Heaton KW, et al. "An explanation for gallstones in normal-weight women: slow intestinal transit." Lancet. January2,1993(341);8-10.

McDougall RM, et al. "Effect of wheat bran on serum lipoproteins and biliary lipids." Can J Surgery. September,1978;21(5):433-435.

Sarles H, et al. "Diet and cholesterol gallstones: a multicenter study." Digestion. 1978;17:121-127.

Vitamin and Mineral References

Vitamin C

Wolf AM, Wolf AMD. "The role of vitamins and minerals in migraine headache, cardiovascular disease, cancer." Hosp Med. April,1999;12,15,27.

Simon JA, et al. "Ascorbic acid supplement use and the prevalence of gallbladder disease." J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51(3):257-265.

Simon JA, Hudes ES. "Serum ascorbic acid and other correlates of gallbladder disease among US adults." Am J Pub Health. August,1998;88(8):1208-1212.

Gustafsson U, et al. "The effect of vitamin C in high doses on plasma and biliary lipid composition in patients with cholesterol gallstones: prolongation of the nucleation time." Euro J Clin Invest. 1997;27:387-391.

Simon JA. "Ascorbic acid and cholesterol gallstones." Med Hyp. 1993;40:81-84.

Jenkins SA. "Vitamin C status, serum cholesterol levels and bile composition in the pregnant guinea-pig." Br J Nutr. 1980;43:95-100.

Jenkins SA. "Biliary lipids, bile acids and gallstone formation in hypovitaminotic C guinea-pigs." Br J Nutr. 1978;40:317-322.

Vitamin E

Phonpanichresamee C, et al. "Hypocholesterolemic effect of vitamin E on cholesterol-fed rabbit." Intl J Vit Nutr Res. 1990;60:240-244.


Tuzhilin SA, et al. "The treatment of patients with gallstones by lecithin." Am J Gastroenterol. 1976;65:231.

Toouli J, et al. "Gallstone dissolution in man using cholic acid and lecithin." Lancet. December6,1975:1124-1126.

Supplement References

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Mendez-Sanchez N, et al. "Fish oil (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids beneficially affect biliary cholesterol nucleation time in obese women losing weight." J Nutr. 2001;131:2300-2303.

Mizuguchi K, et al. "Preventive effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on cholesterol gallstone formation in hamsters." Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. October,1997;110(Suppl 1):50P-55P.

Magnuson TH, et al. "Dietary fish oil inhibits cholesterol monohydrate crystal nucleation and gallstone formation in the prairie dog." Surg. 1995;118:517-23.

Scobey M, et al. "Dietary fish oil effects on biliary lipid secretion and cholesterol gallstone formation in the african green monkey." Hepatol. 1991;14(4/Pt.1),679-684.

Robins S, Fasulo J. "Mechanism of lithogenic bile production: studies in the hamster fed an essential fatty acid-deficient diet." Gastroenterol. 1973;65(1):104-114.


Desai TK, et al. "Taurine deficiency and intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation." Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:708-11.

Nakamura-Yamanaka Y, et al. "Effect of dietary taurine on cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity in the liver of mice fed a lithogenic diet." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1987;33:239-243.

Hydrochloric Acid

Capper WM, et al. "Gallstones, gastric secretion, and flatulent dyspepsia." Lancet. 1:413-15,February25,1976.


Schwesinger WH, et al. "Soluble dietary fiber protects against cholesterol gallstone formation." Am J Surg. April,1999;177:307-310.

Watts JM, et al. "The effect of added bran to the diet on the saturation of bile in people without gallstones." Am J of Surg. 1978;135:321.

Botanical References

Chelidonium majus, chionanthus virginicus, Dioscorea villosa, Lobelia disectum, Taraxacum officinale, Piscidia piscipula, Gentiana lutea

Mitchell WA. Plant Medicine. Preparatory Manuscript; Seattle, WA; 2000.

Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine-From the Heart of the Earth. Wise Acres Press, Inc.; Creswell, OR; 1999.

Ogletree RL, Rischer RG. Physician's and Pharmacist's Guide to the Top 10 Scientifically Proven Natural Products. Natural Source Digest; 2nd Ed. Brandon, MS; 1997.

Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. DK Publishing; New York, NY; 1996.

Murray MT. The Healing Power of Herbs. 2nd Ed. Prima Publishing; Rocklin, CA; 1995.

Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy; Botanical Vol. II. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Felter HW. The Eclectic Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Botanical Vol. 1. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR; 1994.

Scalzo R. Naturopathic Handbook of Herbal Formulas. 3rd Ed. Kivaki Press; Durango, CO; 1994.

Ody P. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. Dorling Kindersley; New York, NY; 1993.

Stansbury JE. Botanical Medicines Acting on the Respiratory System. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Stansbury JE. Pharmacognosy for the Herbal Practitioner. Preparatory Manuscript; Battleground, WA; 1992.

Thomas L. 10 Essential Herbs. Hohm Press; Prescott, AZ; 1992.

Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield Publishers LTD; Beaconsfield, England; 1991.

Hoffman D. The New Holistic Herbal. Element Inc; Rockport, MA; 1991.

Mabey R, et al. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, NY; 1988. England;1988.

Tyler VE, et al. Pharmacognosy. 9th Ed. Lea & Febiger; Philadelphia, PA; 1988.

Wren RC. Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; Essex; 1988

Carr A, et al. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale Press; Emmaus, PA; 1987.

Mowrey DB. The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine. Keats Publishing, Inc.; New Canaan, CT; 1986.

Beyer P. The Master Book of Herbalism. Phoenix Publishing; Custer, WA; 1984.

Goodenough J. Dr. Goodenough's Home Cures & Herbal Remedies. Avenel Books; New York, NY; 1982.

Millspaugh CF. American Medicinal Plants. Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1974.

Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. I & II; Dover Publications, Inc.; New York, NY; 1971.

Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

Kent JT. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers (P) LTD; New Delhi, India; 1991.

Boericke W. Materia Medica with Repertory, 9th Ed..Boericke & Tafel, Inc.; Santa Rosa, CA; 1927.

Other Treatment References


Kratzer W, et al. "Gallstone prevalence in relation to smoking, alcohol, coffee consumption, and nutrition." Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:953-958.


Volpe SL, et al. "Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program." J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(4):293-306.

Leitzmann MF, et al. "The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men." Ann Int Med. March15,1998;128(6):417-425.

Hofmann AF. "Primary and secondary prevention of gallstone disease: implications for patient management and research priorities." Am J Surg. April,1993;165:541-548.

Weight Reduction

Tsai C-J, et al. "Weight cycling and risk of gallstone disease in men." Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(21):2369-74.

Chapman BA, et al. "Gallstone prevalence in Christchurch: risk factors and clinical significance." NZ Med J. February25,2000;113:46-48.

Everhart JE. "Contributions of obesity and weight loss to gallstone disease." Ann Intern Med. November15,1993;119(10):1029-1035.

Stampfer MJ, et al. "Risk of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity." Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:652-658.

Pixley F, Mann J. "Dietary factors in the aetiology of gall stones: a case control study." Gut. 1988;29:1511-1515.

Scragg RKR, et al. "Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study." BMJ. April14,1984;288:1113-1119.

Thornton JR. "Gallstone disappearance associated with weight loss." Lancet. September1,1979:478.

Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).