Below are supplemental abstracts and references of research that support the conclusions on the treatment for Osteoarthritis

. Diet and Nutrition References

Food Allergies

Pacor ML, et al. "Food allergy and seronegative arthritis: report of two cases." Clin Rheumatol. 2001;20:279-281.

Bjarnason I, et al. "Intestinal permeability and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis: Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs." Lancet. 1984;2:1171-74.


Pizzorno JE. "Natural medicine approach to treating osteoarthritis." Alt Comp Ther. January/February,1995;93-95.

Vitamin and Mineral References

Folic Acid, Vitamin B12

Flynn M, et al. "The effect of folate and cobalamin on osteoarthritic hands." J Am Col Nutr. 1994;13(4):351-356.


McCarty MF, et al. "Niacinamide therapy for osteoarthritis - does it inhibit nitric oxide synthase induction by Interleukin-1 in chondrocytes?" J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53:315-322.

Jonas WB, et al. "The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study." Inflam Res. 1996;45:330-334.

Vitamin B5

Anand JC. "Osteoarthritis and pantothenic acid." J Coll Gen Pract. 1963;5:136-7.

Anand JC. "Osteoarthritis and pantothenic acid." Lancet. 1963. 2:1168.

Vitamin C

Darlington LG, Stone TW. "Antioxidants and fatty acids in the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders." Br J Nutr. 2001;85:251-269.

McAlindon TE, et al. "Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis?" Arthritis Rheumatism. 1996;39:648-56.

Bland JH, Cooper SM. "Osteoarthritis: A review of the cell biology involved and evidence for reversibility. Management rationally related to known genesis and pathophysiology." Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1984;14(2):106-33.

Vitamin E

McAlindon TE. "Can diet affect the risk and progression of osteoarthritis? Studies of obesity, folate, and vitamins C, E, and D" Women's Health in Primary Care. October,2000;3(10):741-747.

Rubyk BI, et al. "Change in lipid peroxidation in patients with primary osteoarthrosis deformans." J Ter Arkh. 1988;60(9):110-13.

Machtey I, Ouaknine L. "Tocopherol in osteoarthritis: A controlled pilot study." J Am Geriatr Soc. 1978;266:328.


Jameson S, et al. "Pain relief and selenium balance in patients with connective tissue disease and osteoarthrosis: A double blind selenium tocopherol supplementation study." Nutr Res. 1985;(Suppl)1:391-7.


Travers RL, et al. "Boron and arthritis: the results of a double-blind pilot study." J Nut Med. 1990;1:127-132.

Zinc, Copper

Grennan DM, et al. "Serum copper and zinc in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis." N Z Med J. 1980;91(652):47-50.

Supplement References

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe)

Soeken KL, et al. "Safety and efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis." J Fam Pract. May,2002;51(5):425-530.

Soeken KL, et al. "S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is safe and effective for osteoarthritis." J Fam Pract. August,2002;51:425-430.

Chavez M. "SAMe: S-adenosylmethionine." Am J Health-Syst Pharm. January1,2000;57:119-123.

Pizzorno JE. "Natural medicine approach to treating osteoarthritis." Alt Comp Ther. January/February,1995;93-95.

Carusa IK, Peitrogrande V. "Italian double-blind multicenter study comparing S-adenosylmethionine, maproxen and placebo in the treatment of degenerative joint disease." Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):66-71.

Miller-Fassbender H. "Double-blind clinical trial of S-adenosylmethionine versus ibuprofen in the treatment of osteoarthritis." Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):81-83.

di Padova C. "S-adenosylmethionine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Review of the clinical studies." Am J Med. 1987:83(5A):60-65.

Maccagno A, et al. "Double-blind controlled clinical trial of oral S-adenosylmethionine versus piroxicam in knee osteoarthritis." Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):72-77.

Vetter G. "Double-blind comparative clinical trial with S-adenosylmethionine and indomethacin in the treatment of osteoarthritis." Am J Med. 1987;83(5A):78-80.

Hydrochloric Acid

Hartung EF, Steinbrocker O. "Gastric acidity in chronic arthritis." Ann Intern Med. 1935;9:252-7.

Glucosamine/Chondroitan Sulfate

Blakeley JA, Ribeiro VES. "Glucosamine and osteoarthritis." AJN. February,2004;104(2):54-59.

Jain RK, McCormick JC. "Can glucosamine supplements be applied for all patients with Type 2 Diabetes with osteoarthritis?" Arch Intern Med. April12,2004;164:807.

Richy F, et al. "Structural and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: a comprehensive meta-analysis." Arch Intern Med. July14,2003;163:1514-1522.

Braham R, et al. "The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain." Br J Sports Med. 2003;37:45-49.

Dodge GR, Jimenez SA. "Glucosamine sulfate modulates the levels of aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase-3 synthesized by cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes." Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11:424-432.

Priebe D, et al. "Does glucosamine or chondroitin cause regeneration of cartilage in osteoarthritis?" J Fam Pract. March,2003;52(3):237-238.

Sullivan MG. "Nutraceuticals gain favor for treatment of osteoarthritis." Fam Prac News. January15,2003:28.

Cohen M, et al. "A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial of a topical cream containing glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and camphor for osteoarthritis of the knee." J Rheumatol. 2003;30:523-528.

Splete H. "Topical cream relieves knee arthritis pain." J Rheumatol. 2003;30:523-528.

Pavelka K, et al. "Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study." Arch Intern Med. October14,2002;162:2113-2123.

Leeb BF. "Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of osteoarthritis: comment on the article by akama and saito." Arthritis Care Res. December,2001;45(6):537-538.

Hauselmann HJ. "Nutripharmaceuticals for osteoarthritis." Best Practice Res Clin Rheumatol. 2001;15(4):595-607.

Rubin BR, et al. "Oral polymeric n-acetyl-d-glucosamine and osteoarthritis." JAOA. June,2001;101(6):339-344.

Reginster JY, et al. "Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial." Lancet. January27,2001;357:251-256.

Walker-Bone K, et al. "Glucosamine and chondroitin may help in osteoarthritis." Br Med J. March17,2001;322:673.

McAlindon TE, et al. "Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis." JAMA. March15,2000;283(11):1469-1475.

Burmeister A. "The use of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis." Physician Assistant. November,2000;46-55.

Pavelka K, et al. "Osteoarthritis and cartilage." Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000;8:335-342.

Das A Jr, Hammad TA. "Efficacy of a combination of FCHG49 glucosamine hydrochloride, TRH122 low molecular weight sodium chondroitin sulfate and manganese ascorbate in the management of knee osteoarthritis." Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000;8:343-350.

Delafuente JC. "Glucosamine in the treatment of osteoarthritis." Rheum Dis Clin North Am. February,2000;26(1):1-11.

de los Reyes GC, et al. "Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a survey." Prog Drug Res. 2000;55:83-103.

Leffler CT, et al. "Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study." Mil Med. February,1999;164(2):85-91.

Runkel DR, Cupp MJ. "Glucosamine sulfate use in osteoarthritis." Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1999;56:267-269.

Anderson MA. "Oral chondroprotective agents. Part I. common compounds." Compendium. July,1999;21(7):601-606.

Rovati LC, et al. "Glucosamine in osteoarthritis." Lancet. November6,1999;354(9190):1640.

Towheed TE, et al. "Glucosamine therapy for osteoarthritis." Rheumatol. 1999;26(11):2294-2297.

Houpt JB, et al. "Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee." J Rheumatol. 1999;26:2423-2430.

Ronca F, et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate." Osteoarth Cartil. 1998;6(Suppl.A):14-21.

Bourgeois P, et al. "Efficacy and tolerability of chondroitin sulfate 1,200 mg/day vs chondroitin sulfate 3 x 400 mg/day vs placebo." Osteoarth Cartil. 1998;6(Suppl.A):25-30.

Videla Dorna I, Guerrero RC. "Effects of oral and intramuscular use of chondroitin sulfate in induced equine aseptic arthritis." J Equine Vet Sci. 1998;18(9):548-555.

Bucsi L, Poor G. "Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis." Osteoarth Cartil. 1998;6(Suppl.A):31-36.

Russell AL. "Glucosamine in osteoarthritis and gastrointestinal disorders: an exemplar of the need for a paradigm shift." Med Hypoth. 1998;51:347-349.

Verbruggen G, et al. "Chondroitin sulfate: S/DMOAD (structure/disease modifying anti-osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finger joint OA." Osteoarth Cartil. 1998;6(Suppl.A):37-38.

Uebelhart D, et al "Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study." Osteoarth Cartil. 1998;6(Suppl.A):39-46.

da Camara CC, Dowless GV. "Glucosamine sulfate for osteoarthritis." Ann Pharmacother. May,1998;32:580-587.

Bucci LR. "Glycosaminoglycan supplements as therapeutic agents." Nutr Rep. January,1996;14(1):8.

Morreale P, et al. "Comparison of the antiinflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis." J Rheumatol. 1996;23(8):1385-1391.

Reichelt A, et al. "Efficacy and safety of intramuscular glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study." Arzneimittelforschung. January 1994;44(1):75-80.

Lopes Vaz A. "Double-blind clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulphate in the management of osteoarthrosis of the knee in out-patients." Curr Med Res Opin. 1982;8(3):145-149.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Curtis CL, et al. "Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cartilage metabolism." Proc Nutr Soc. 2002;61:381-389.

Stammers T, et al. "Fish oil in osteoarthritis." Letter, Lancet. 1989;2:503.

Botanical References


Baghdikian L, et al. "An analytical study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri." Planta Medica. 1997;63:171-176.


Bingham R, et al. "Yucca plant saponin in the management of arthritis." J Appl Nutr. 1975;27:45-50.


Beckstrom-Sternberg SM, Duke D. The Phytochemical Database. (ACEDB version 4.3 -data version July 1994).

Angelica Sinensis

Hikino, H. Recent Research on Oriental Medicinal Plants. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. 1985, Volume 1, London Academic press.


Mabey R, Ed. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Co, NY, NT;1988:41.


Mabey R, Ed. The New Age Herbalist. Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Co, NY, NT;1988:100.


Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy. Eclectic Medical Publications; Sandy, OR;1993:436-7.

Homeopathy References

Morrison R.Desktop Guide to Keynotes and Confirmatory Symptoms.Hahnemann Clinic Publishing; Albany, CA; 1993.

Murphy R.Homeopathic Medical Repertory.Hahnemann Academy of North America; Pagosa Springs, CO; 1993.

Phatak SR. A Concise Repertory of Homoeopathic Medicines. B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; New Delhi, India; 1992.

Kruzel T. The Homeopathic Emergency Guide.North Atlantic Books; Berkeley, CA; 1992.

Kent JT. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica.B. Jain Publishers (P) LTD; New Delhi, India; 1991.

Boericke W. Materia Medica with Repertory, 9th Ed..Boericke & Tafel, Inc.; Santa Rosa, CA; 1927.

Other Treatment References

Epsom Salt Spa

Hill S, et al. "A pilot study to evaluate the effects of flotation spa treatment on patients with osteoarthritis." Complemen Ther in Med. 1999;7:235-238.


Hsieh JB, Dominick KL. "Use of non-pharmacological therapies among patients with osteoarthritis." Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003;15(5):419-425.

Boschert S. "Dieting and exercise combo best for osteoarthritis" Fam Prac News. March15,2003:22.

Worcester S. "Exercise and other ways to improve osteoarthritis." Fam Prac News. October15,2002:27.

Hurley BF, Roth SM. "Strength training in the elderly: effects on risk factors for age-related diseases." Sports Med. October 2000;30(4):249-268.

Deyle GD, et al. "Effectiveness of manual physical therapy and exercise in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial." Ann Intern Med. February,2000;132(3):173-181.

Petrella RJ. "Is exercise effective treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee?" Br J Sports Med. 2000;34:326-331.

Hartman CA, et al. "Effects of tai chi training on function and quality of life indicators in older adults with osteoarthritis." J Am Geriatr Soc. December 2000;48(12):1553-1559.

van Baar ME, et al. "Effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee." Arth Rheum. July,1999;42(7):1361-1369.

Cooper C, Coggon D. "Physical activity and knee osteoarthritis." Lancet. June26,1999;353:2177-2178.

Lindsay H. "Moderate exercise prevents, relieves osteoarthritis." Fam Prac News. October15,1999:36.

Murphy SM, Jurisson ML. "Putting exercise to work for your patients with osteoarthritis." J Musculoskel Med. June,1998;15(6):26-35.

Buckwalter JA, Lane NE. "Athletics and osteoarthritis." Am J Sports Med. 1997;25(6):873-881.

DiNubile NA. "Osteoarthritis: how to make exercise part of your treatment plan." Physician Sportsmed. July,1997;25(7).

Kovar PA, et al. "Supervised fitness walking in patients With osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial." Ann Int Med. April1,1992;116(7):529-534.


McKay L, et al. "Effect of a topical herbal cream on the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial." J Clin Rheumatol. June,2003;9(3):164-169.

Altman RD, et al. "Capsaicin cream 0.025% as monotherapy for osteoarthritis: a double-blind study." Sem In Arth Rheum. June,1994;23(6/Suppl3),25-33.

Schnitzer T, et al. "Topical capsaicin therapy for osteoarthritis pain: achieving a maintenance regimen." Sem In Arth and Rheum. June,1994;23(6)Suppl.1:34-40.


Hinman MR, et al. "Effects of static magnets on chronic knee pain and physical function: a double-blind study." Altern Ther Health Med. July/August 2002;8(4):50-55.

Trock DH. "Electromagnetic fields and magnets: investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders." Rheumat Dis Clin North Am. February,2000;26(1):51-62.

Copyright 1998 - 2008 by L. Vicky Crouse, ND and James S. Reiley, ND. All rights reserved (ISSN 1527-0661).